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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Francisco de Zurbarán (Biographical details)

Francisco de Zurbarán (painter/draughtsman; Spanish; Male; 1598 - 1664)

Also known as

Zurbarán, Francisco de; Zurbarán, Francisco


Painter, born Fuente de Cantos (Extremadura). Trained Seville (1614-1617) under the little-known painter Pedro Díaz de Villanueva. Having forgone the Sevillian painters' exam, returned to his native Extremadura where he enjoyed several years of success only to be invited back to Seville (1629) upon the unusual request of the municipal government. Received many commissions from religious houses throughout Andalusia and Extremadura and worked on the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid (1634). Moved to Madrid (1658) where he spent the final years of his life. Best known for his striking portrayals of monks and saints bathed in dramatic light, such as 'The Martyrdom of Saint Serapion' (1628, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford) and the series of eight large canvases depicting the 'History of the Hieronymite Order' conserved in situ at the Monastery of Guadalupe (Extremadura).


O. Delenda, 'Francisco de Zurbarán, 1598-1664: catálogo razonado y crítico', Madrid 2009.
J. Brown, 'Francisco de Zurbarán', New York 1973.