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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Annotated bibliography (thematic and chronological)

Annotated bibliography:

All papyrological abbreviations are cited according to the conventions established in J. F. Oates, R. S. Bagnall, S. J. Clackson, A. A. O’Brien, J. D. Sosin, T. G. Wilfong and K. A. Worp, Checklist of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic papyri, ostraca and tablets. http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/texts/clist.html, last accessed March 2013.

Reference works:

Porter, B. and R. L. B. Moss. [1937] 1962. Topographical bibliography of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs and paintings V: Upper Egypt. Sites. Repr. Oxford: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum. (4)

Leclercq, H. 1954. Wadi Sarga. In Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, F. Cabrol and H. Leclercq (eds), vol. 15.2, col. 3237. Paris: Letouzey et Ané.

Timm, S. (ed.). 1985. Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit 3: (G–L). Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des vorderen Orient, Reihe B (Geisteswissenschaften) 41.3. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. (vol. 3: 1400–1403)

Coquin, R.-G. and M. Martin. 1991. Wadi Sarjah. In The Coptic encyclopedia, A. Atiya ed., vol. 7: 2312. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

The site and overviews:

Jullien, R. P. Michel. 1903. Quelques anciens couvents de l’Égypte IV. Les Missions catholiques 35: 237–240. (239–40)

Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 1907. Gizeh and Rifeh. BSAE 13. London: School of Archaeology in Egypt. (2, 30, pls 39, 40)

Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 1909. Memphis I. BSAE 15. London: School of Archaeology in Egypt. (pl. 54)

Clarke, S. 1912. Christian antiquities in the Nile Valley: A contribution towards the study of the ancient churches. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (174)

Thompson, R. Campbell. 1914a. Byzantine Research Fund: Excavations at Wadi Sarga. JEA 1: 187–88.

Thompson, R. Campbell. 1914b. An Egyptian relief at Wadi Sarga. PSBA 36: 198.

Meinardus, Otto F. A. 1965. Christian Egypt: Ancient and modern. Cairo: Cahiers d’histoire égyptienne. (288–89)

Doresse, Jean. 1970. Monastères coptes de Moyenne Égypte. BSFE 59: 7–29. (16–17)

Doresse, Jean. [1971] 2000. Les anciens monastères coptes de Moyenne-Égypte (du Gebel-et-Teir á Kôm-Ishgaou) d’après l’archaéologie et l’hagiographie. Yverdon-Les-Bains: Institut d’arche´ologie yverdonnoise. (360–81 and passim)

Klemm, Rosemarie and Dietrich D. Klemm. [1993] 2008. Stones and quarries in ancient Egypt. Engl. trans. London: The British Museum Press. (117, 144)

Cappozzo, Mario. 2007. Udi Sarga. In Il cristianesimo nel Medio Egitto. Todi (PG) [i.e. Perugia, Italy]: Tau. (139–42)

Wipszycka, E. 2009. Moines et communautés monastiques en Égypte (IVe-VIII siècles). Warsaw: Journal of Juristic Papyrology. (90, 155–57, 330, 361, 457, 546, 549–550).


Editions: P. Ryl.Copt. 124, 201 (probably), 289, 294; P.Sarga; SB XVIII 13370–13562 (reprinted from P.Sarga); SB Kopt. I 321, 480?; see also P.Lond.Copt. II

Thompson, H. 1911. A Coptic palimpsest containing Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Judith and Esther in the Sahidic dialect. London: H. Frowde; Oxford University Press. (Reused at Deir al-Suriyan, for provenance, see P.Sarga p. 8)

Crum, W. E. and H. I. Bell eds. 1922. Wadi Sarga: Coptic and Greek texts from the excavations undertaken by the Byzantine Research Account. Coptica 3. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel-Nordisk Forlag. http://archive.org/stream/cu31924026887616#page/n27/mode/2up

H[all?], H[enry?]. 1924. Review of Wadi Sarga: Coptic and Greek texts. W. E. Crum and H. I. Bell. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 44.1: 131–32.

Kahle, Paul. 1954. Bala’izah: Coptic texts from Deir el-Bala’izah in Upper Egypt. London: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean; Oxford: Oxford University Press. (comparanda, etc., 2–3, 9, 16–18, 22, 26, 32, 33, 48, 49, 51, 220, 224, 235, 590, 711, 721)

Bonner, Campbell. 1939. A Coptic fragment of Melito’s Homily on the Passion. The Harvard Theological Review 32: 141–42. (=P.Sarga 17)

De Nie, H. 1941. Een Koptisch-christelijke orakelvraag. Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 8: 615–18.

Husselman, Elinor, M. 1951. Some Coptic documents dealing with the poll-tax. Aegyptus 31: 332–38. (P. Mich. Inv. 578=P.Sarga 174 and two related docs at Univ. Michigan: P. Mich. Inv. 1300, P. Mich. Inv. 1524)

Barns, J. W. B. and R. Kasser. 1971. Le manuscrit moyen-égyptien B.M. Or. 9035. Muséon 84: 395–401.

Raven, M. J. 1982. Papyrus, van bies tot boekrol: Met een bloemlezing uit de Leidse papyrusverzameling. Zutphen. (80–81)

Layton, Bentley. 1987. Catalogue of Coptic literary manuscripts in the British Library acquired since the year 1906. London: British Library. (LI–II, P.Lond.Copt. II 16, 20, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 44, 51, 75, 111, 186, 188, 192)

Bacot, S. 1998. La circulation du vin dans les monasteries d’Égypte a l’epoque copte. In Le commerce dans l’Égypte ancienne, N. Grimal and B. Menu eds, 269–88. Bd’É 121. Cairo: IFAO. (comparanda)

Bacot, S. 2002. Une nouvelle attestation de ‘la petra d’Apa Mèna’ au sud d’Assiout. BIFAO 102: 1–16. (comparanda)

Tudor, B. 2011. Christian funerary stelae of the Byzantine and Arab periods from Egypt. Marburg: Tectum Verlag. (75, 188-195, 203-204, 230, 414-415, inter alia)

Cromwell, Jennifer. 2013. A Coptic epistolary exercise from Wadi Sarga. JEA99: 272–275.

Wall-paintings and comparanda

Dalton, O. M. 1916. A Coptic wall-painting from Wadi Sarga. JEA 3: 35–37.

Drioton, E. 1944. Un dessin copte des trois Hébreux dans la fournaise. BSAC 10: 80–85.

Doresse, J. 1952. Découverte d’une nouvelle église peinte. In Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres: 390.

Wessel, Klaus. 1963. Koptische Kunst: Die Spätantike in Ägypten. Recklinghausen: A. Bongers. (180)

Walters, C. C. 1974. Monastic archaeology in Egypt. Warminster: Aris & Phillips. (246, 319–20)

van Loon, G. J. M. 1999. The gate of heaven: Wall paintings with Old Testament scenes in the altar room and the hurus of Coptic churches. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Instanbul. (168, 170–71, pl. 144)

van Loon, G. J. M. 2004. The meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek and the communion of the Apostles. In Coptic Studies on the Threshold of a New Millennium. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Coptic Studies. Leiden, August 27 – September 2, 2000. 2. M. Immerzeel and J. van der Vliet (eds.). 1381–1400. Leuven: Peeters. (1378–79)

van Loon, G. J. M. and A. Delattre. 2004. La frise des saints de l’église rupestre de Deir Abou Hennis. Eastern Christian Art in its Late Antique and Islamic Contexts. 1. Leuven: Peeters. (96–98, 100–101, fig. 14)

van Loon, G. J. M. and A. Delattre. 2005. La frise des saints de l’église rupestre de Deir Abou Hennis. Eastern Christian Art in its Late Antique and Islamic Contexts. 2. Leuven: Peeters. (167)

van Loon, G. J. M. 2011. Priest and Father, Prophet and Martyr: Zacharias, parent of Saint John the Baptist. In Egypt 1350 BC AD 1800. Art historical and archaeological studies for Gawdat Gabra. M. Eaton-Krauss, C. Fluck, and G. J. M. van Loon (eds), 87–108. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag. (92, pl. 13c)

The British Museum collection

Dalton, O. M. 1921. A guide to the early Christian and Byzantine antiquities in the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities. 2nd edition. London: Oxford University Press. (117, 176–79, fig. 70)

Bailey, Donald M. 1988. A catalogue of the lamps in The British Museum 3: Roman provincial lamps. London: British Museum Publications. (2, 216–17, 230, 232; lamps Q2205, Q2249–50, Q2257–58, Q2270–75)

Bailey, Donald M. 1996. A catalogue of the lamps in The British Museum 4: Lamps of metal and stone, and lampstands. London: British Museum Publications. (74, 76, 77, 142, 173; lamps Q3821, Q3830)

Bierbrier, M. I. 1999. Coptic antiquities in the Department of Egyptian Antiquities, British Museum. In Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit: Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.–26. Juli 1996 , S. Emmel, M. Krause, S. G. Richter and S. Schaten (eds),1: 88–89. Wiesbaden: Reichert. (88–89)

Bailey, Donald M. 2008. A catalogue of terracottas in the British Museum 4: Ptolemaic and Roman terracottas from Egypt. London: The British Museum Press. (21, 108–09, 175, 177, 182–83; terracottas 3388, 3403, 3726–35)

Strudwick, N. 2006. Masterpieces of ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press. (EA 73139, 324–35, EA 73196, 326–27)

O’Connell, E. R. 2010/2011. Late Antique Egyptian collections in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan. Ancient Egypt 11.2 (Issue 63) (Dec./Jan.): 23–29. (27–28)

O’Connell, E. R. 2012. Settlements and cemeteries of Late Antique Egypt: A short history of archaeological collections in the British Museum. In Coptic culture: Past, present and future, M. Ayad (ed.). Oxford: Oxbow Books. (102–103)

O’Connell, E. R. 2014. The discovery of Christian Egypt: From manuscript hunters toward an archaeology of Late Antiquity. In Coptic civilization: Two thousand years of Christianity in Egypt, G. GABRA (ed.): 163-176. Cairo. (169, figs 14.3-4)

O’Connell. E. R. 2014. R. Campbell Thompson’s 1913–14 excavation of Wadi Sarga and other sites. British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 21: 121–92.

Faiers, J. 2014. Wadi Sarga revisited: A preliminary study of the pottery excavated in 1913/14. In Egypt in the First Millennium AD: Perspectives from new fieldwork, E. R. O’Connell (ed.), 177–89. British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 2. Leuven: Peeters.

O’Connell, E. R. Forthcoming 2014. Wadi Sarga at the British Museum: Sources for study­ (with annotated bibliography). Proceedings of the The Tenth International Congress of Coptic Studies, Rome, 17–22 September 2012. Leuven: Peeters.

British Museum archives:

Ancient Egypt and Sudan Department Archive (AES Ar.), The British Museum, London.

Prehistory and Europe Department Archive (P&E Ar.), The British Museum, London.