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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Beyond Boundaries:

Religion, Region,
and the State

Corresponding Principal Investigator:

Department of Asia 


Supported by

European Research Council

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Epigraphic find-spots and related archaeological sites

The maps below show the locations of epigraphic material finds and archaeological sites of the Gupta dynasty and contemporary ruling states.

The marked sites date to between the fourth century CE and the eighth century CE. The epigraphic material (inscriptions and charters issued by the ruling elite) highlighted in the maps can be considered as ‘official’ records of each state and along with the archaeological remains, help expand our understanding of the centres of political, religious and ritual activity during this period. The maps will continue to be updated throughout the project.


Nala and Śarabhapurīya 
Sri Lanka 
Viṣṇukundin, Śālaṅkāyana and related dynasties