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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site



The most important part of any archaeological project is that the results are published, so that scholars around the world can take account of the new information in their research.

This often takes a long time – as the mass of material can take years to process, study and interpret.

Final publication of Amara West will take many years, but here are some published articles on various aspects of the work so far:

N. Spencer, "Insights into life in oc¬cupied Kush during the New Kingdom: new research at Amara West", Antike Sudan 23 (2012), 21–8

N. Spencer, with Sophie Hay, "Amara West: Remote sensing at a pharaonic town in northern Sudan", in Proceedings of the conference, Archaeological Survey and the City. University of Cambridge, 2013, 176-201.


N. Spencer, with Philippa Ryan and Caroline Cartwright) "Archaeobotanical research in a pharaonic town in ancient Nubia", British Museum Technical Research Bulletin 6 (2012), 97-106

N. Spencer, with Jamie Woodward and Mark Macklin, "Re-assessing the abandonment of Amara West: the impact of a changing Nile?", Sudan & Nubia 16 (2012), 37-43.

N. Spencer, ‘Nubian architecture in an Egyptian town? Building E12.11 at Amara West’, Sudan & Nubia 14 (2010), pages

M. Binder, N. Spencer and M. Millet, ‘Cemetery D at Amara West: the Ramesside Period and its aftermath’, Sudan & Nubia 14 (2010), 25–44

N. Spencer, ‘Cemeteries and a Ramesside suburb at Amara West’, Sudan & Nubia 13 (2009): 47–61.

R. Parkinson and N. Spencer, ‘The Teaching of Amenemhat at Amara’, EA 35 (2009): 25–7

Further reading

Egypt Exploration Society

The Egypt Exploration Society excavations at Amara West were not published by its excavators, but two books on the architecture, pottery and graves have appeared, based on the old archives:

P. Spencer, Amara West, I: The architectural report. Excavation Memoir 63 (London, 1997)

P. Spencer, Amara West, II: The cemetery and the pottery corpus. Excavation Memoir 69 (London, 2002).

Historical background and context

In addition, the following recommended books provide a good introduction to the historical background and context:

D.N. Edwards, The Nubian Past. An Archaeology of the Sudan (London, 2004)

S.T. Smith, Wretched Kush: Ethnic Identity in Egypt’s Nubian Empire (London, 2003)