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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Sir Aurel Stein

and Collections

Edited by Helen Wang

British Museum Research Publication 184
ISBN 978-086159-1848
© The Trustees of the British Museum 2012

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This volume, published to mark the 150th anniversary of the birth of Sir Aurel Stein, presents papers about him, his colleagues and his collections.

 Read the introduction 
Helen Wang, curator, East Asian Money,
British Museum

Follow the links below to download and read
the full publication.

Line drawing of a seal of Pallas Athene

Line drawing, seal of Pallas Athene, by Fred Andrews, used by Stein as a vignette in his publications.