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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site

 

A Naos of Nekhthorheb from Bubastis:

Religious Iconography and Temple building in the 30th Dynasty

Neal Spencer, with a contribution by Daniela Rosenow

British Museum Research Publication 156
ISBN 978 086159 156 5

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Follow the links below to download and read the full publication in pdf format.

 All chapters 

 Illustrations 

 Figures 

 Plates 

The first full publication of a monumental red granite naos of king Nekhthorheb from the temple at Bubastis in the Nile Delta (360–343 BC). Originally 3.5m tall, fragments were excavated by Edouard Naville in the 1880s, many of which are now in the British Museum, the naos is an important source for late religious iconography and relief sculpture as it bears extensive depictions of divine figures, arranged in registers and carved in exquisite detail at a small scale.

A comprehensive photographic coverage of the architecture and decoration is presented, alongside facsimilies, plans and reconstructions. The purpose and meaning of the decoration is discussed, and the naos placed in the context of the extensive temple building programme of the 30th dynasty, which sought to complement military defence with sacred protection in the face of Persian invasion attempts.

A chapter by Daniela Rosenow presents results from recent excavations by the Egyptian-German Joint Mission to Bubastis, with important information on the 30th dynasty temple of Bastet.