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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Ancient Caucasian and related material in the British Museum

John Curtis and Miroslaw Kruszyskinna
Appendix on Metallurgy
by Alistair Pike
Drawings by Ann Searight

British Museum Occasional Paper 121
ISBN 0 86159 121 6
© The Trustees of the British Museum 2002

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Bronze axe

Bronze axe of Koban type, catalogue no. 114