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Site D (Phase I) 11–23 Feb 1895

Site D [Bamboula] 0.8km from Episkopi close to the (new) Paphos road near the bridge to Erimi.

'Thirty-two tombs were opened  on this site exclusive of those yielding no results, those that contained Mycenaean objects were mostly small, like circular pits, and none were of systematic shape or plan. All appeared to have been robbed in Roman or Byzantine times’.

The majority of tombs were probably chambers with pit entrances (dromoi) as outlined in the section on History, culture and burial customs, but the inexperienced excavation methods of Walters’ team were unable to identify these features correctly, especially as many clearly had been disturbed or had collapsed due to natural causes prior to their visit.

Notebook
Description of Site D

Tomb 27

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Terracotta, pottery, stone beads
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber tomb
Additional information: Terracotta bull vase (C.M. 467; A1252); WS and possibly BR II wares; green steatite (?) spindle whorl with incised decoration. CCM: 181; SCE IV/1C: 192, no.38 (bull vase); also mentioned in Lamp III, 292.

Tomb 28

Contents: BM: four items
Materials/objects: Pottery; stone
Chronological range of objects: LC IIB–LC IIIA; IA
Tomb type and status:  Chamber tomb
Additional information: WPW III and LH IIIA–B pottery; the Egyptian scarab is intrusive as it appears to date from the Third Intermediate or Late period, according to Dr Marcel Marée in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan at the British Museum, unless of course it was wrongly assigned to this tomb. The Notebook also mentions ‘a plain bowl of red ware’, which was not registered.

Tomb 29

Contents: CM/BM: one item (?)
Materials/objects: Pottery, glass or faience (?), stone
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status:  Chamber tomb
Additional information: A comment added later in the Notebook suggests that fragments of a Myc. stirrup jar from this tomb were assigned to the British Museum (possibly 1896,2 1.376). CCM, 181, WS ware; SCE IV/1C: Mono (93, 95); BR II (186); RLW (203); Myc. (299, Type 45; 349, ‘other stirrup jars’, including CM A1616). The tomb index in SCE IV/D also lists ‘Episkopi’ Tomb 29 separately from British Museum Tomb 29, to which is attributed a BR I spindle bottle (SCE IV/1C, 167).

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 27–29

Notebook
AN411294

Tomb 30

Contents: BM: seven items
Materials/objects: Pottery, stone, bronze
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: A LHIII pithoid jar (1896,2-1.389; Vase C439) was also registered but is no longer identifiable in the BM collections. The Notebook and Excavations also mention fragments of bronze and pottery vessels which were not kept: the latter seem to include WS, Bucchero, Myc. (or possibly WPW III) and other painted or plain wares whose type cannot be identified by the written description alone.


Tomb 31

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: The Notebook and Excavations also mention fragments of painted bowls, probably of WS ware.

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 30–31

Tomb 32

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Stone
Chronological range of objects:  LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: ‘Part of a Hittite seal in black basalt – incised design of two deer and a tree’; ‘two stone weights, perforated’. CCM,181; SCE IV/1D (545, weights).

Tomb 33

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: CG I–II
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: The only item recorded from this tomb, a WP I cup, is described as Mycenaean in the Notebook and Excavations (79 and fig. 129).

Tomb 34

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Gold, pottery, faience (?)
Chronological range of objects: LC IB–III
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: BR II bowl (‘hat-shaped vase’) and frags of Myc. ware mentioned in the Notebook but not registered.

Tomb 35

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Pottery, glazed stone/faience (?)
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: CCM, 181 (‘green enamel beads’, C.M. 630), WS (type II.4)

Tomb 36

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC II–III
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Also a Bucchero ware jug (not registered). Both the Notebook and Excavations (pp. 63, 79) note the existence of a painted ‘hieroglyphic’ character on the shoulder of the PWW II krater, but no trace now exists on the vase.

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 32–36

Tomb 37

Contents: BM: two items
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LH IIIA2–IIIB early
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Contents listed with Tomb 38 in Excavations, 79.

Tomb 38

Contents: BM: No objects registered
Materials/objects: Stone
Chronological range of objects: LC (?)
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: ‘Marble vase’ listed in the Notebook and Excavations, 79 but not registered.

Tomb 39

Contents: BM: two items registered
Materials/objects: Stone (beads)
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status:  Chamber
Additional information: ‘Handle of vase of peculiar shape’ (not kept).

Tomb 40

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: CCM, 181 lists Myc., WS, and Bucchero ware; SCE IV/1C: Myc. pottery (349, ‘other stirrup jars’, C.M. A.1586).

Tomb 41

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Pottery, stone, gold (beads, rings)
Chronological range of objects: LC IB–III
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: The Notebook states there were two burial levels, the lower containing Mycenaean material, the upper ‘Cypriote’, perhaps a reference to the Bucchero jug and ribbed stone which probably indicates a later LC IIC–IIIA date to the LC IIB–C context for the Myc. ware. CCM, 181; SCE IV/1C: Mycenaean (306, pithoid jars, C.M. A1668, 1689, 1690; 349, stirrup jar, ‘other’); SCE IV/1D: faience bowl (523); stone mortar (537); unclassified stone (543); CVA Cyprus I, pl. 25,8 31.

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 3741

Tomb 42

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC II–IIIA
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Frags of Myc. and (probably) WS pottery not registered.

Tomb 43

Contents: BM: five items
Materials/objects: stone, pottery, gold
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Frags of pottery (Myc., Bucchero and ‘Cypriote’ ware) and bronze not registered, as well as two gold ornaments. A faint sketch in the margin of the Notebook depicts what resembles a Mycenaean-style relief bead with a spiral or floral design.

Tomb 44

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Pottery, terracotta, bronze
Chronological range of objects: LC IIC–III; CG II/III–CA
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: WP/BiCh pottery and terracotta figurine (horseman, horse) not registered.

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 41–44

Tomb 45

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Stone
Chronological range of objects: LC (LC IIB–C)
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Frags of Myc. Pottery (‘one with murex’) not registered.

Tomb 46

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Stone
Chronological range of objects: (L)BA
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Stone axe-head and weight. CCM, 181, axe-head (C.M. 670).

Tomb 47

Contents: BM: two items
Materials/objects:  Pottery, stone, bronze
Chronological range of objects: LC (LC IIB–C)
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Frags of bronze pins and Bucchero ware not registered.

Tomb 48

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Pottery, stone
Chronological range of objects: LC (LC IIB–C)
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Myc. jug and some frags of Myc. pictorial style sherds (chariot scene) not registered.


Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 44–48

Tomb 49

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: WS bowls. CCM, 181 (WS type II.4)

Tomb 50

Contents: BM: six items
Materials/objects: Gold, glass, pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC IB–III; LM IIIB
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: An ivory disc, possibly the lid of a box, was also registered but is no longer identifiable. Other frags of Myc. stirrup jar and a vase of ‘rock crystal (flat cup on stem)’ were not registered: the latter is possibly an Egyptian(ising) tazza cup. This tomb was re-excavated in the 1930s by Daniel (his Tomb 26) who discovered additional fragments of the LM III stirrup jar. The chamber was oval in shape, measuring 3.35 x 4.2m and 2.2m high, and approached by a square dromos with a small niche in the side wall. Daniel also found an ivory button, numerous Cypriot sherds (BR II, RLW, Mono., WS II, and much plain ware), Myc. fabrics. The fragment of a BR figurine possibly belongs with the head preserved by Walters. See Benson 1972, 25–6, 36–7 (chart); see also Benson 1961.


Tomb 51

Contents: CM
Materials/objects:  Bronze
Chronological range of objects: LBA
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Part of a ploughshare. CCM, 181 (C.M. 609).

Tomb 52

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery, bronze
Chronological range of objects: CG III–CA I
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Bronze ring not registered.
Comment: Several unnumbered items are listed in the Notebook immediately following the entry for Tomb 52, presumably from the same area if not actually from the same tomb (a bronze dagger with hooked-tang; a body fragment of a Mycenaean vase; and a terracotta female figurine ‘in relief’). None was registered by the museum or assigned to Nicosia. Excavations, 79 also mentions fragments of bronze (presumably including the bronze ring) and a stone weight. If they came from the same context, this is another example of a LBA chamber reused in the IA, though the relief terracotta may have been of CA date contemporary with the only registered object from the tomb.

Tomb 53/102

Contents: BM/CM: one item (the Mycenaean 'Window Crater') registered as GR1896,2-1.26 but transferred to the Cyprus Museum in 1969 on long-term loan
Materials/objects Pottery: Chronological range of objects LC IIB–IIC
Tomb type and status: Double chamber tomb formed with Tomb 102 (see below)
Additional information: This tomb (and the second chamber Tomb 102) produced some large fragments from the same unique Pictorial Style Mycenaean vase depicting a chariot scene on one side and on the other a series of panels enclosing standing women wearing long dresses. This was originally published in Excavations (73 and fig. 127) and the British Museum vase catalogue (C391). The chamber was rediscovered during John Daniel’s excavations at Bamboula in the 1930s. He found more fragments of this same vase in Tomb 17–17A (Benson 1972, 20–21 no. 26; cf. Vermeule and Karageorghis 1982, no. III.12, 18–19). The British Museum parts of the vase were reassembled with those in Nicosia in 1969 as a long-term loan to the Cyprus Museum (Karageorghis 2009). Other Mycenaean pottery sherds were also found by the British Museum in this chamber but not kept. The gold earrings and other metal items, as well as glass fragments and numerous WPW III vessels found by Daniel (in addition to many LC sherds which would not probably have been kept by the British Museum team) indicate the lack of thoroughness of the original British Museum excavations, which did not seem to have reached the floor of the chamber. See below Tomb 102.

Image: Late Helladic (Mycenaean) krater or wine-mixing bowl decorated with scenes of women standing in windows, Tomb 53/102, 1375–1300 BC (GR 1896,2-1.26; Vase C391).

Tomb 54

Contents: CM/BM: one item registered by BM
Materials/objects: Pottery
Chronological range of objects: LC II–III
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information
CCM, 181, Frags of Mycenaean stirrup jars and other shapes, WS bowls and jugs; SCE IV/C: 435, WS II bowl, C.M. A. 1301.

Tomb 55

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Pottery (LH IIIA2/IIIB)
Chronological range of objects: LH IIIA2–IIIB early
Tomb type and status:  Chamber
Additional information: A WS jug was also found but not registered.

Tomb 56

Contents: BM: four items
Materials/objects: Pottery, stone
Chronological range of objects: CG III–CA I
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: Excavations (p. 80) notes that around 60 ‘jugs, bowls, amphorae of Graeco-Phoenician type’, probably one or more CG III–CA tomb groups, were also found but not kept; along with Tomb 95 (see below), this demonstrates the extreme selectivity employed by Walters for post-BA material from Site D, paralleling the treatment of similar finds, especially Iron Age Cypriot material, from Sites A and B. A stone spindle-whorl was also not kept or registered.

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 53–56

Tomb 57

Contents: BM: five items
Materials/objects: Terracotta, pottery
Chronological range of objects:  LC II–III
Tomb type and status: Chamber

Trial trenches were then undertaken in an area approximately 1km to the south of Site D, probably at the site of Episkopi-Phaneromeni but the only numbered tomb was assigned to the CM (see general sections above for details):

Tomb 58

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Pottery, bronze
Chronological range of objects: EC–MC
Tomb type and status: Chamber
Additional information: ‘Pottery with incised lines and chevron pattern’ (probably RP ware); also a ‘Bronze dagger with hook handle’. CCM, 181 (C.M. 558).

Notebook
Descriptions of Tombs 56–58


Guide to the tombs

Introductions to the sites