The guardian-demons of the Book of the Dead

Rita Lucarelli

This paper explores the nature and function of the so-called guardians and gate-keepers of BD 144–147. These are among the most attested texts of the corpus, not only in papyri but also in coffins, tombs and temples. The demonic nature of these figures is discussed, particularly in relation to the conception of demons and intermediate beings within the later phases of the ancient Egyptian religion. In particular, the guardians’ epithets occurring in the Book of the Dead are compared with those attested in the Osirian chapels of the temple of Hathor at Dendera, and in a ritual papyrus of the Ptolemaic Period.

The guardian-demons of the Book of the Dead

To reference this article we suggest:

Lucarelli, R. 2010. The guardian-demons of the Book of the Dead. BMSAES 15, 85–102. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/online_journals/bmsaes/issue_15/lucarelli.aspx

Contact the author
rita.lucarelli@gmail.com