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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site



Treatment date
8 August 2002

Reason for treatment
Permanent Exhibition

Treatment proposal
Remove tarnish.

The object is in good condition overall. There is dirt, dust and a light layer of tarnish on the surface of the object. There are a couple of very small patches of more dense tarnish.

Treatment details
The dirt, dust and tarnish was removed using cotton swabs of Acetone (propan-1-one/dimethyl ketone). The more dense areas of tarnish were removed using Duraglit metal polish (cotton wadding,white spirit,ammonium soap,china clay,Newburgh chalk). Any residues were removed using white spirit and then acetone.