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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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Chalk drum; incised decoration.; top, on roundel, 'eyes' motif formed by two reserved circles surrounded by two concentric incised circles and then by concentric incised arcs; at base of roundel, single encircling incised line;
body: at top and at base, three and two incised encircling lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines with inner enclosed moulding nicked from left or both side; panel A: incised triple cross; upper field: incised 'eyes and eyebrow' motif; lower field: alternate rows of incised filled and reserved lozenges, with uppermost lozenge triple with central incision and lowest row double and filled with vertical incised lines, the intervening mouldings nicked from left; left field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle filled with repeated incised chevrons; Right field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle occupied by by traces of filled and reserved triangles (surface eroded);
Panel B: double incised vertical bar chevron filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left, with reserved bar chevron above and below; upper and basal triangles plain; top eroded;
Panel C: opposed incised double to triple bar chevrons filled with vertical incised lines with intervening mouldings from left; upper field: plain; lower field: incised triangular, lozenge and sub-rectangular spaces filled with incised lattice; left field: incised triangle filled with triangles alternately reserved and filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left; right field: incised triangle filled with lozenges and triangles, reserved or filled with with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from right;
Panel D: opposed quadruple chevrons with central moulding nicked from both sides; lower lateral and basal triangular spaces filled with incised lattice; upper lateral triangles filled; uppermost triangle plain, enclosed lozenge with filled hourglass pattern.

Museum number

1893,1228.15

Description

Full: Front

Chalk drum; incised decoration.; top, on roundel, 'eyes' motif formed by two reserved circles surrounded by two concentric incised circles and then by concentric incised arcs; at base of roundel, single encircling incised line; body: at top and at base, three and two incised encircling lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines with inner enclosed moulding nicked from left or both side; panel A: incised triple cross; upper field: incised 'eyes and eyebrow' motif; lower field: alternate rows of incised filled and reserved lozenges, with uppermost lozenge triple with central incision and lowest row double and filled with vertical incised lines, the intervening mouldings nicked from left; left field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle filled with repeated incised chevrons; Right field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle occupied by by traces of filled and reserved triangles (surface eroded); Panel B: double incised vertical bar chevron filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left, with reserved bar chevron above and below; upper and basal triangles plain; top eroded; Panel C: opposed incised double to triple bar chevrons filled with vertical incised lines with intervening mouldings from left; upper field: plain; lower field: incised triangular, lozenge and sub-rectangular spaces filled with incised lattice; left field: incised triangle filled with triangles alternately reserved and filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left; right field: incised triangle filled with lozenges and triangles, reserved or filled with with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from right; Panel D: opposed quadruple chevrons with central moulding nicked from both sides; lower lateral and basal triangular spaces filled with incised lattice; upper lateral triangles filled; uppermost triangle plain, enclosed lozenge with filled hourglass pattern.

© The Trustees of the British Museum

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  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.; top, on roundel, 'eyes' motif formed by two reserved circles surrounded by two concentric incised circles and then by concentric incised arcs; at base of roundel, single encircling incised line;
body: at top and at base, three and two incised encircling lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines with inner enclosed moulding nicked from left or both side; panel A: incised triple cross; upper field: incised 'eyes and eyebrow' motif; lower field: alternate rows of incised filled and reserved lozenges, with uppermost lozenge triple with central incision and lowest row double and filled with vertical incised lines, the intervening mouldings nicked from left; left field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle filled with repeated incised chevrons; Right field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle occupied by by traces of filled and reserved triangles (surface eroded);
Panel B: double incised vertical bar chevron filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left, with reserved bar chevron above and below; upper and basal triangles plain; top eroded;
Panel C: opposed incised double to triple bar chevrons filled with vertical incised lines with intervening mouldings from left; upper field: plain; lower field: incised triangular, lozenge and sub-rectangular spaces filled with incised lattice; left field: incised triangle filled with triangles alternately reserved and filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left; right field: incised triangle filled with lozenges and triangles, reserved or filled with with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from right;
Panel D: opposed quadruple chevrons with central moulding nicked from both sides; lower lateral and basal triangular spaces filled with incised lattice; upper lateral triangles filled; uppermost triangle plain, enclosed lozenge with filled hourglass pattern.

    Full: Front

  • COMPASS Image Caption:Detail of carving (using moving camera)

    Detail: Other

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Detail: Other

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Detail: Other

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Full: Front

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Full: Front

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Full: Front

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Full: Front

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Full: Front

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Front:Top

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Front:Top

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.; top, on roundel, 'eyes' motif formed by two reserved circles surrounded by two concentric incised circles and then by concentric incised arcs; at base of roundel, single encircling incised line;
body: at top and at base, three and two incised encircling lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines with inner enclosed moulding nicked from left or both side; panel A: incised triple cross; upper field: incised 'eyes and eyebrow' motif; lower field: alternate rows of incised filled and reserved lozenges, with uppermost lozenge triple with central incision and lowest row double and filled with vertical incised lines, the intervening mouldings nicked from left; left field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle filled with repeated incised chevrons; Right field: reserved chevron with double incised triangle occupied by by traces of filled and reserved triangles (surface eroded);
Panel B: double incised vertical bar chevron filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left, with reserved bar chevron above and below; upper and basal triangles plain; top eroded;
Panel C: opposed incised double to triple bar chevrons filled with vertical incised lines with intervening mouldings from left; upper field: plain; lower field: incised triangular, lozenge and sub-rectangular spaces filled with incised lattice; left field: incised triangle filled with triangles alternately reserved and filled with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from left; right field: incised triangle filled with lozenges and triangles, reserved or filled with with vertical lines, with intervening mouldings nicked from right;
Panel D: opposed quadruple chevrons with central moulding nicked from both sides; lower lateral and basal triangular spaces filled with incised lattice; upper lateral triangles filled; uppermost triangle plain, enclosed lozenge with filled hourglass pattern.

    Group of Objects

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Group of Objects

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Group of Objects

  • Chalk drum; incised decoration.
Top: on roundel; five concentric incised circles at centre of four-rayed star pattern; field between rays with incised triangles, three lattice-filled and one filled with vertical lines; at base of roundel, one incised circumferential line;
Body: at top and base, three and two encircling grooved lines respectively; on surface, two broad and two narrow panels separated by triple vertical incised lines;
Panel A: 'eyebrows, nose and eyes' motif in relief; below, central triple incised lozenge, flanked by triple incised lines with lift lower and right upper half lattice-filled; beneath, triple incised vertical chevron;
Panel C: opposed reserved bar chevron outlined by triple incised lines; centre: triple incised lozenge; left and right fields: quadruple triangles divided by double incised lines, the upper halves filled with incised lattice; upper field: vertical bar chevron with incised double lozenge and triangle filled with incised lattice; lower field: eroded but ?similar with bar chevron inverted and one triangle filled with vertical lines;
Panels B and D: 'flag' pattern formed by triple incised opposed chevrons; each field divided with one half scraped and left plain, the other filled with incised lattice; in lateral triangles, divisions formed by double incised lines.

    Group of Objects

  • COMPASS Title: The Folkton Drums;Limestone 'drums'

    Unknown