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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Description

    Small silk flag, printed with "Stars and Bars" design of the Confederate States of America (1860-64), that is, a blue diagonal cross set with 13 white stars, a white border to this, and a red ground.
    Materials: silk; Techniques: simple tabby, printing, machine chain-stitch; Warp: silk without twist (fine) c.36 ends per cm; Weft: silk without twist (fine) c.40 picks per cm; Edges: all hidden; Sewing: edges turned under twice and machine sewn-chain stitch- sewing thread Z-twist S-ply red silk. "Confederate American". Dating based mainly on rise of sewing machine. Although an American invention, sewing machines were not common until c.1875. However, those producing chain stitch, as here, were the earliest kind.

    Flag; silk; Confederate States of America; 'Stars and Bars:' blue St Andrew's cross with white stars upon a white cross with red field.


  • Date

    • 1861-1865 (?)
  • Production place

    • Made in: USA
    • (Americas,North America,United States of America)
  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Length: 28.5 centimetres
    • Width: 21.5 centimetres
  • Condition

    One corner torn, potentially very fragile.

  • Subjects

  • Associated places

  • Associated events

    • Associated Event: American Civil War
  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Britain, Europe and Prehistory

  • Registration number


Flag; silk; Confederate States of America, 1861-65, United States


Flag; silk; Confederate States of America, 1861-65, United States

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Object reference number: MCT14264

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