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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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figure

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    1873,0820.255

  • Description

    Bronze figure of a heifer.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 1stC BC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 16.51 centimetres
  • Bibliography

    • Bronze 1796 bibliographic details
  • Location

    G1/fc7i

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    28 October 1998

    Reason for treatment

    Storage

    Treatment proposal

    Clean, stabilise and repair where necessary

    Condition

    Req.No: 68330 Dirty. Areas of black-spot especially on the underbelly and neck. Some areas are fluoresecent. All four legs have been repaired (new legs section from the knee downwards). Something is loose in the main body. The outer green patina is of an uneven colour, breaking through to a red/brown cuprite in some areas. In others, especially around the neck and head, the green corrosion layer is very thick and uneven, obscuring the detail. In patches the patina has broken away to reveal a pale green/white powdery layer (probably caused by tin or lead inclusions in the alloy having corroded at the surface). This is not bronze disease and is not active. The (missing) tail has broken off revealing a copper dowel. CRB

    Treatment details

    1998 Removed the figure from the base. Washed the dirt off the surface using distilled water applied on cotton wool swabs. This was ineffective on some soil deposits. Removed the majority of the soil using the air abrasive machine with sodium bicarbonate. Brushed to remove the dust. Removed the excess green copper corrosion using a scalpel. Revealed much of the fine detail on the face and neck and around the back legs of the figure. Was careful to avoid any sections which revealed the powdery white/green corrosion. There are some areas of 'charred wood' around the underbelly and legs. These were not touched. Brushed to remove all dust. Filled and recoloured the white/green pitted corrosion areas. A fill made from Winsor & Newton Dry Ground pigments and pieces of copper corrosion cleaned from the figure, was used. This was adhered using Paraloid B72 adhesive (10% in acetone) applied with a brush. Dry pigment was stippled onto the nearly dry adhesive and brushed to remove the excess. The figure was brushed again with a medium brush to give a uniform surface. The base was reattached. CRB

    About these records 

  • Subjects

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1873

  • Department

    Greek & Roman Antiquities

  • Registration number

    1873,0820.255


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Object reference number: GAA2229

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