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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Cloth-mark; lead; inner discs from four-part seal; (1): shield with Latin cross of St George and beaded border; (2): legend within faint beaded border.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 1649-1660
  • Production place

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Diameter: 13 millimetres (both discs)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

        disc one
      • Inscription Content

        ESSEX TB
  • Curator's comments

    The cross is that of St George, indicating the Commonwealth period. The alnager TB also appears on seals with CR (presumably for Charles I rather than II), as well as on analogus Suffolk issues (see No. 101). In addition to finds in London, a group of TB's CR seals for both counties was recovered from a wreck off the south of Norway (Molaug 1980, 181-2).
    (Egan 1994)


  • Bibliography

    • Egan 1994 15 bibliographic details
  • Subjects

  • Associated names

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Britain, Europe and Prehistory

  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • 1854,0120.26


If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

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Object reference number: MCN449

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