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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Pottery: red figure kylix.
    Interior: Around the lip a wreath of laurel.
    Exterior: (a) Four youthful nude figures (athletes?) moving to left. The first and third (from left) turn to converse with the second and fourth. The third figure rests his right on a staff.
    (b) Similar: Here the same figures converse in pairs confronted. The second is seated on a rock. Beneath and beside each handle, a triple palmette. All the figures wear white fillets. Below the scenes a thin red line.
    Late style. White is used for the fillets.


  • Producer name

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 420BC-400BC (circa)
  • Production place

  • Materials

  • Ware

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 11.65 centimetres
  • Curator's comments

    BM Cat. Vases

    The catalogue (1898) states 'The band of figures and the handles are genuine; the remainder seems made up from parts of another vase.' A later handwritten note however adds 'Reconstructed Sept. 1922, with omission of many fragments.'

  • Bibliography

    • Vase E112 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    Much broken.

  • Subjects

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Greek & Roman Antiquities

  • Registration number


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Object reference number: GAA41346

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