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boundary-stone / kudurru

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    90858

  • Description

    Limestone stela in the form of a boundary-stone: consisting of a block of calcareous limestone, shaped and prepared on four sides to take sculptures and inscriptions. It is now mounted on a stone plinth. Face A has been sculptured in comparatively high relief with symbols, arranged in six registers; First register: (1) Eight-pointed star ; (2) Crescent; (3) Solar disc. Second register : (4) Horned headdress upon a shrine; (5) A second horned headdress upon a shrine; (6) A third horned headdress upon a shrine. Third register : (7) Spear-head upon a shrine, beside which appears the fore-part of a horned dragon ; (8) Wedge upon a shrine, beside which appears the fore-part of a horned dragon, or composite monster ; (9) Yoke reversed, upon a shrine. Fourth register: (10) Eagle-headed mace, or standard; (11) Twin-lion-headed mace, or standard ; (12) Horse's head, with neck and shoulders, upon a shrine, standing within a double arch upon a raised base, possibly intended to represent a shrine; (13) Bird on perch. Fifth register: (14) The goddess Gula seated upon a shrine, with a dog lying beside her ; (15) Scorpion-man, wearing a cylindrical headdress, and shooting with a bow. The Scorpion-man has the head, arms and torso of a man, and below his girdle he has the body and tail of a scorpion, and the legs and claws of a bird. Sixth register: (16) Lightning-fork, supported by a bull, couchant; (17) Turtle: (18) Scorpion; (19) Lamp on pedestal; and (20) Serpent, extending from the centre of the stone at the top, down the left-hand side of the first five registers. Faces B and C each bear a single column of inscription, the lines running the full width of the stone. The top of the stone and Face D have been left blank, except for the serpent, which has been carved to the left of the emblems on Face A. Inscribed with a Charter from the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I.

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  • Authority

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 64 centimetres
    • Length: 21 centimetres
    • Width: 18 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column two
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) dûru ša (alu)Bît-(ilu) Šamaš a ša (alu) Ša-an-ba-ša la e-pi-ši
        (2) ti-tur-ra la e-pi-ši ḫarrana la a-ma-a-ri
        (3) ṣâbê(pl.) (alu)Nippurû (alu)Babilû(u) lu ṣâb šarri
        (4) ma-la i-na alâni(pl.) ša Bît-(m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku aš-bu
        (5) i-na ali u ṣêri ṣa-bat amêli la ša-ka-na
        (6) ištu i-na i-lik (mâtu)Na-mar išî(i) gab-bi-šu
        (7) (ilu)Nabû-ku-dur-ri-uṣur šar kiššati alâni(pl.) ša (m.)Rit-ti-(ilu)Marduk
        (8) mâr (m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku ḳaḳ-ḳar (mâtu)Na-mar ma-la ba-šu-u
        (9) a-na u-um ṣa-ti u-zak-ki u ṣâbê(pl.) a-šib alâni(pl.) šu-a-tum
        (10) a-na at-ri ḫa-ma-at ša šakin (mâtu)Na-mar u (amêlu)nagiri-u-kin-šu-nu-ti
        (11) i-na za-ku-ut alâni(pl.) šu-a-tum
        (12) (m.)Na-zi-(ilu)Marduk mâr (m.) Šad-dak(?)-me ka-lu (mâtu)Akkadî(KI)
        (13) (m.)Arad-(ilu)Na-na-a mâr (m.)Mudam-miḳ(iḳ)-(ilu)Adad (amêlu)šakin ṭe-mi mâti
        (14) (m. ilu)Marduk-ku-dur-ri-uṣur (amêlu)sukal (ilu)Bêl
        (15) (m.)Ṭu-bi-ia-en-na (amêlu)šaḳû
        (16) (m.)Muk-kut-is-saḫ mâr (m.) Ṣa-ap-ri amêlu ša bâb ekalli
        (17) (m. ilu)Šamaš-nadin-šumi mâr (m.)At-ta-ilu-ma ša-kin (alu)I-ši-in
        (18) (m. ilu)Ba-u-šum-iddina(na) mâr (m.) Ḫu-un-na ša-kin Bâbili(KI)
        (19) (m.)Uballiṭ-su-(ilu)Gu-la mâr (m.)Arad-(ilu)E-a bêl paḫâti
        (20) (m.ilu)Marduk-mukîn-apli mâr (m.) Ṭâbu-mi-li-e ša-tam bît u-na-ti
        (21) (m.)Arad-(ilu)Gu-la mâr (m.)Kal-bi ša-kin Uš-ti
        (22) (m.)Ṭa-ab-a-šab-(ilu)Marduk mâr (m.)E-sag-gil-zêru ša-kin Ḫal-man
        (23) (m. ilu)En-lil-nadin-šumi mâr (m.)Ḫab-ban ša-kin (mâtu)Na-mar
        (24) u (m. ilu)Nabû-ku-dur-ri-uṣur (amêlu)nagir (mâtu)Na-mar izzazû(pl. zu)
        (25) dupšarru ša-ṭi-ir (abnu)narî an-ni-I (m. ilu)En-lil-tab-ni-bu-ul-liṭ (amêlu)barû
        (26) ma-ti-ma a-na ar-kat ûmê(pl.)
        (27) lu-u in-a mârê(pl.) (m.) Ḫab-ban lu-u ma-am-ma ša-nu-um-ma
        (28) ša a-na ša-kin-nu-ti ša (mâtu)Na-mar iš-šak-ki-nu
        (29) lu-u ki-pu-ut (mâtu)Na-mar ištu ṣi-ḫir ra-bi ma-la ba-šu-u
        (30) alâni(pl.) ša Bît-(m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku
        (31) ša šarru i-na i-lik (mâtu)Na-mar u-zak-ku-u
        (32) šarra u ilâni(pl.)-šu la ip-tal-ḫu-ma ut-te-ru-ma il-ka il-tak-nu
        (33) u šu-um ili u šarri ša šaṭ-ru up-taš-ši-ṭu-ma ša-nam il-ta-aṭ-ru
        (34) lu-u sak-la lu-u sak-ka lu-u sa-ma-a lu-u lim-nu amêlu
        (35) u-ma-ʾ-a-ru-ma (abnu)narâ an-na-a ina abni i-naḳ-ḳa-ru
        (36) išâti u-šaḳ-lu a-na nâri i-na-su-ku ina eḳli la a-ma-ri i-tam-mi-ru
        (37) amêlu ša-a-šu ilâni(pl.) rabûti(pl.) ma-la i-na šamê(pl.) u irṣiti šum-šu-nu zak-ru
        (38) ag-giš li-ru-ru-šu ilu u šarru iz-zi-iš lik-kil-mu-šu
        (39) (ilu)Nin-ib šar šamê u irṣiti u (ilu)Gu-la kal-lat E-šar-ra
        (40) li-bu-tu ku-dur-ra-šu li-ḫal-li-ḳu zêra-šu
        (41) (ilu)Adad gu-gal same I irṣiti bêl naḳ-bi u zu-un-ni
        (42) nârâti(pl.)-šu li-mil-la-a sa-ki-ki
        (43) bu-bu-ta u ḫu-ša-aḫ-ḫa liš-kun-šu-um-ma
        (44) lu-ub-nu ma-ku-u li-mi-nu ur-ra u mu-ša lu-u ra-ki-is-it-ti-šu
        (45) a-na a-šib ali-šu ma-ki-I ḳât-su lim-gu-ug
        (46) (ilu)Šu-ma-li-ia be-lit šadê(pl.) el-lu-ti
        (47) a-ši-bat ri-še-e-ti ka-bi-sa-at kup-pa-a-ti
        (48) (ilu)Adad (ilu)Nergal u (ilu)Na-na-a ilâani(pl.) ša (mâtu)Na-mar
        (49) (ilu)Ṣîru ilu šu-pu-u mâr bîti ša (alu)Di-e-ir
        (50) (ilu)Sin u bêlit (alu)Ak-ka-di ilâni(pl.) ša Bît-(m.)Ḫab-ba-an
        (51) ilâni(pl.) rabûti(pl.) an-nu-tu i-na uz-za-at lib-bi
        (52) a-na limutti(ti) li-iḫ-ta-sa-as-su-šu-ma
        (53) bîtu ip-pu-šu li-bi-el ša-nu-um-ma
        (54) ul-tu paṭ-ru i-na kišâdi-šu u ḳup-pu-u ina i-ni-šu
        (55) a-na ṣa-bi-ti-ta-ni-šu ap-pa-šu lil-bi-im-ma
        (56) un-ni-ni-šu a-a im-ḫu-ur-šu
        (57) ḫa-an-ṭi-iš lik-ki-sa na-ap-šat-su
        (58) i-na ḫi-pi-e bîti-šu ḳâtâ(II)-šu ṭi-ṭa li-ru-ba
        (59) a-di u-um bal-ṭu ma-ru-uš-ta li-iš-du-ud
        (60) u a-di šamê u irṣitu ba-šu-u zêru-šu li-iḫ-liḳ
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) that they shall not fortify Bit-Shamash nor Shanbasha,
        (2) nor build a bridge, nor bank up a road ;
        (3) that soldiers of Nippur or Babylon, or such soldiers of the king
        (4) as are quartered in the towns of Bit-Karziabku,
        (5) are not to cause the arrest of any man, whether in town or country ;—
        (6) from all jurisdiction of Namar whatsoever
        (7) Nebuchadnezzar, the king of hosts, freed the towns of Ritti-Marduk,
        (8) the son of Karziabku, in the district of Namar, all that there are,
        (9) for ever, and the soldiers quartered in those towns
        (10) he appointed for special maintenance by the governor of Namar and the commandant.
        (11) At (the declaration of) the freedom of those towns there are present
        (12) Nazi-Marduk, the son of Shaddakme, the priest of Akkad,
        (13) Arad-Nana, theson of Mudammik-Adad, the administrator of the land,
        (14) Marduk-kudurri-usur, the minister of Bel,
        (15) Tubia-enna, the officer,
        (16) Mukkut-issakh, the son of Sapri, the official of the Palace Gate,
        (17) Shamash-nadin-shumi, the son of Atta-iluma, the governor of Ishin,
        (18) Bau-shum-iddina, the son of Khunna, the governor of Babylon,
        (19) Uballitsu-Gula, the son of Arad-Ea, the provincial governor,
        (20) Marduk-mukin-apli, the son of Tabu-mile, the keeper of the treasure-house,
        (21) Arad-Gula, the son of Kalbi, the governor of Ushti,
        (22) Tab-ashab-Marduk, the son of Esagil-zeru, the governor of Khalman,
        (23) Enlil-nadin-shumi, the son of Khabban, the governor of Namar,
        (24) and Nabu-kudurri-usur, the commandant of Namar.
        (25) The scribe, who has written this memorial-stone, is Enlil-tabni-bullit, the seer.
        (26) Whenever in after time
        (27) one of the sons of Khabban, or any other man,
        (28) who may be appointed as governor of Namar,
        (29) or as prefect of Namar, be he small or great, whoever he may be,
        (30) with regard to the cities of Bit-Karziabku,
        (31) which the king has freed from the jurisdiction of Namar,
        (32) shall not fear the king or his gods, and shall again place them under (its) jurisdiction,
        (33) or shall obliterate the name of a god or of the king, which is inscribed (hereon), and shall write another (in the place thereof),
        (34) or shall employ a fool, or a deaf man, or a blind man, or a knave,
        (35) and shall smash this memorial with a stone,
        (36) or burn it in the fire, or put it in the river, or hide it in a field where it cannot be seen,
        (37) may all the great gods, whose names are mentioned in heaven and earth,
        (38) curse that man in wrath! May god and king look upon him in anger!
        (39) May Ninib, the king of heaven and earth, and Gula, the bride of Esharra,
        (40) destroy his boundary-stone and obliterate his seed!
        (41) May Adad, the ruler of heaven and earth, the lord of springs and rain,
        (42) fill his canals with mud!
        (43) May he set. hunger and want upon him,
        (44) and may oppression, ruin, and adversity be bound day and night at his side!
        (45) May ruin fasten its grip upon the inhabitants of his city!
        (46) May Shumalia, the lady of the bright mountains,
        (47) who dwells upon the summits, who treads beside the springs,
        (48) Adad, Nergal and Nana, the gods of Namar,
        (49) Siru, the bright god, the son of the temple of Der,
        (50) Sin and the Lady of Akkad, the gods of Bit-Khabban,
        (51) may these great gods in the anger of their hearts
        (52) contrive evil against him!
        (53) May another possess the house which he has built!
        (54) With a dagger in his neck, and a poniard in his eye,
        (55) may he cast himself upon his face before his captor,
        (56) and may he spurn his pleading,
        (57) and swiftly cut off his life!
        (58) Through the downfall of his house may his hands enter the mire!
        (59) As long as he lives may he drag sorrow along with him,
        (60) and, as long as heaven and earth remain may his seed perish!
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Comment

        The text of the Charter falls naturally into the following five sections : -

        I. Col. I, ll. 1-43 : Historical introduction, setting forth the services rendered by Ritti-Marduk to Nebuchadnezzar during a campaign in Elam, undertaken

        "to avenge Akkad" (l. 13), that is to say, in retaliation for Elamite raids in Northern Babylonia. The campaign was conducted from the frontier city of Der, and, being carried out in the summer, the Babylonian army suffered considerably from the heat and from lack of water (ll. 14-21). Ritti-Marduk, the Captain of the chariots, did considerable service to the king, both by encouraging the troops on the march (ll. 22-27) and by leading the attack against the Elamite Confederation during the battle which was subsequently fought on the banks of the Eulaeus (ll. 28-43).

        II. Col. I, ll. 44-51 : Record of the granting of the Charter by Nebuchadnezzar
        to Ritti-Marduk, in reward for his services, freeing the towns or villages of Bit-Karziabku, of which he was the head-man, from the jurisdiction of the neighbouring city of Namar.

        III. Col. I,l. 51-Col. II, l. 10 : Recital of the terms of the Charter, (i) Conferring on the towns freedom from all taxation, dues, or confiscations on the part of the king's officers or the officials of Namar (ll. 51-60); (ii) Securing the freedom of the towns from the corvee for public works (Col. II, ll. 1-2); (iii) Freeing the inhabitants from liability to arrest by imperial soldiers stationed in the towns or villages (Col. II, ll. 3-5) ; and (iv) Preventing the billeting of such soldiers on the towns by providing for their maintenance by Namar (Col. II, ll. 9-10).

        IV. Col. II, ll. 11-25: Enumeration of the names and titles of thirteen high officials, who were present at the granting of the Charter (ll. 11-24), and the name of the engraver of the record (l. 25).

        V. Col. II, ll. 26-60 : Imprecations intended to prevent any violation of the
        Charter, or any injury to the record.
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column one
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) e-nu-ma (ilu)Nabû-ku-dur-ri-uṣur rubû na-a-du
        (2) na-as-ḳu ṣi-it Bâbili(KI) e-til šarrâni(pl.)
        (3) pa-te-si ḳar-du šakkanak (alu)Eridu
        (4) (ilu)Šamaš mâti-šu mu-šam-mi-ḫu ni-ši-šu
        (5) na-ṣir ku-dur-ri-ti mu-kin-nu ab-li-e
        (6) šar ki-na-a-ti ša di-in mi-ša-ri i-din-nu
        (7) zi-ik-ri ḳar-du ša a-na e-piš taḫâza ḳit-pu-da e-mu-ḳa-šu
        (8) na-aš pitpâni iz-zi-ti la a-di-ru taḫâzi
        (9) ša dan-na (mâtu)Lul-lu-bi-I u-šam-ki-tu i-na kakki
        (10) ka-šid (mâtu)A-mur-ri-i ša-li-lu Kaš-ši-i
        (11) na-sik šarrâni(pl.) rubû na-ra-am (ilu)Marduk
        (12) u-ta-ʾ-ir-šu-ma šar ilâni(pl.) (ilu)Marduk
        (13) a-na tur-ri gi-mil-li (mâtu)Akkadî(KI) u-šat-ba-a kakkê(pl.)-šu
        (14) iš-tu (alu)Di-e-ir ma-ḫa-az (ilu)A-nim
        (15) ši-iḫ-ṭa iš-ta-ka-an a-na 30 KAS-GID
        (16) i-na (arḫu)Duʾûzu iṣ-ṣa-bat ḫar-ra-a-na
        (17) TA-DAN-[ . . . . . ] aḳ-ḳu-ul-lu i-kab-ba-bu ki-i i-ša-ti
        (18) u tu-[ka]t ša gir-ri-e-ti i-ḫa-am-ma-ṭu ki nab-li
        (19) ia-ʾ-nu mê(pl.) saḫ-ḫi u bu-ut-tu-ḳu maš-ḳu-u
        (20) ni-is-ḳu ša rabûti(pl.) sisê(pl.) it-ta-ši-iz-zu
        (21) u ša id-li ḳar-di pu-ri-da-šu it-tu-ra
        (22) il-lak šarru na-as-ḳu ilâni(pl.) na-šu-šu
        (23) i-rid-di (ilu)Nabû-ku-dur-ri-uṣur šanina la išû
        (24) ul id-dardan-na-at eḳli iš-ka-ra-a-ti
        (25) (m.)Rit-ti-(ilu)Marduk bêl bîti ša Bît-(m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku
        (26) ša (iṣu)ma-gar-ra-šu bît i-mit-ti
        (27) šarri bêli-šu la im-mir-šu-ma ma-gar-ra-šu uk-til-la
        (28) ur-ri-iḫ-ma šarru dan-nu ik-ta-šad-a-na kišâd (nâru)U-la-a
        (29) in-nin-du-ma šarrâni(pl.) ki-lal-la-an ip-pu-šu taḫâza
        (30) i-na bi-ri-šu-nu in-na-pi-iḫ i-ša-tu
        (31) i-na tur-bu-ʾ-ti-šu-nu na-ʾa-du-ru pân (ilu) Šamaši(ši)
        (32) a-šam-ša-tu iṣ-ṣa-nun-du i-sa-ar me-ḫu-u
        (33) i-na mi-ḫi-e ta-ḫa-zi-šu-nu
        (34) id-lu bêl narkabti u lip-pal-la-sa ša-na-a ša it-ti-šu
        (35) (m.)Rit-ti-(ilu)Marduk bêl bîti ša Bît-(m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku
        (36) ša (iṣu)ma-gar-ra-šu bît i-mit-ti
        (37) šarri bêli-šu la im-mir-šu-ma (iṣu)ma-gar-ra-šu uk-til-la
        (38) la i-dur-ma taḫâzâ it-ta-rad a-na (amêlu)nakri
        (39) u a-na nakri bêli-šu i-te-ru-ub a-tar-ta
        (40) i-na pî (ilu)Iš-tar u (ilu)Adad ilâni(pl.) bêlê(pl.) taḫâzi
        (41) ul-te-is-ḫi-ir limutte(te) lu ana šar (mâtu)Elamti(KI) i-te-mid kur-šu
        (42) u šarru (ilu)Nabû-ku-dur-ri-uṣur it-ta-ši-iz i-na li-ti
        (43) iṣ-ṣa-bat (mâtu)Elamta(KI) i-ša-ta-lal makkura-ša
        (44) ištu i-na li-ti ḫu-ud libbi(bi) a-na (mâtu)Akkadi(KI) i-tu-ra
        (45) (m.)Rit-ti-(ilu)Marduk bêl bîti ša Bît-(m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku
        (46) ša i-na nakru-u-ti u mun-daḫ-ṣu-ti šarru bêlu-šu i-mu-ru-šu-ma
        (47) aš-šu alâni(pl.) Bît-(m.)Kar-zi-ia-ab-ku ḳaḳ-ḳar (mâtu)Na-mar ma-la ba-šu-u
        (48) ša ina šarri pa-na za-ku-ma ina nakrûti(pl.) ana la a-di-šu-nu ana i-lik (mâtu)Na-mar i-ru-bu
        (49) šarra bêla-šu (ilu)Nabû-ku-dur-ri-uṣur uš-id-ma
        (50) šarru parse(pl.) i-šal-ma ki i-na la-bi-ri alâni(pl.) za-ku-tum-šu-nu
        (51) i-na i-lik (mâtu)Na-mar gab-bi-šu kal-li-e šarri
        (52) u ša-kin (mâtu)Na-mar (amêlu)nagiru a-na ali la e-ri-bi
        (53) (amêlu)rab u-ri-e u-ra-a u (f.)urâti(pl.)
        (54) a-na libbi(bi) alâni(pl.) la šu-ru-bi
        (55) ṣibit alpê(pl.) u ṣi-e-ni ša šarri u šakin (mâtu)Na-mar la ṣa-ba-ti
        (56) pu-lu-uk u imêr buraši la na-da-ni
        (57) imêra a-na (amêlu)ma-ki-si la na-da-ni
        (58) [a]mêlu ša bit-ḫal-li a-na alâni(pl.) la e-ri-e-bi
        (59) [l]u i-na libbi (f.)urâti(pl.) bit-ḫal-la la ṣa-ba-ti
        (60) [ma]-ak-kal-ti kirê(pl.) u gišimmarê(pl.) la na-ka-si
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) When Nebuchadnezzar, the exalted and noble prince,
        (2) the offspring of Babylon, the ruler of kings,
        (3) the valiant patesi, the governor of Eridu,
        (4) the Sun of his land, who makes his people to prosper,
        (5) who protects boundary-stones, who holds fast the boundaries,
        (6) the king of justice, who pronounces a righteous judgment,
        (7) the strong hero, whose might is devoted to waging war,
        (8) who bears a terrible bow, who fears not the battle,
        (9) who overthrew the mighty Lullubi with the sword,
        (10) the conqueror of the Amorites, the despoiler of the Kassites,
        (11) the appointer of kings, the prince beloved of Marduk,
        (12) - when the king of the gods, Marduk, sent him forth,
        (13) he raised his weapons to avenge Akkad.
        (14) From Der, the city of Anu,
        (15) he marched for thirty double hours.
        (16) In the month of Tammuz he undertook the campaign.
        (17) . . . . . the axe burned like fire,
        (18) and the . . . . . of the roads scorched like flame.
        (19) There was no water in the wells (?), and the drinking supply was cut off.
        (20) The splendour of the great horses failed,
        (21) and the legs of the strong man turned aside.
        (22) The noble king advances, the gods supporting him.
        (23) Nebuchadnezzar marches on, he has no rival,
        (24) he fears not the difficult country, he urges on (?) the yoked horses.
        (25) Ritti-Marduk, the head of the House of Bit-Karziabku,
        (26) the captain of his chariots, whose place was at the right hand
        (27) of the king, his lord, did not . . . . . him, and drove on his chariot.
        (28) The mighty king hastened, and he came to the bank of the Eulaeus.
        (29) The kings took their stand round about, and offered battle.
        (30) In their midst fire was kindled,
        (31) by their dust was the face of the sun darkened ;
        (32) the hurricane sweeps along, the storm rages.
        (33) In the storm of their battle
        (34) the warrior in the chariot perceives not - the companion at his side.
        (35) Ritti-Marduk, the head of the House of Bit-Karziabku,
        (36) the captain of his chariots, whose place was at the right hand
        (37) of the king, his lord, did not . . . . . him, and drove on his chariot.
        (38) He feared not the battle, he went down against the enemy,
        (39) and among the enemies of his lord he valiantly forced a way in..
        (40) By the command of Ishtar and Adad, the gods who are arbiters of battle,
        (41) he turned evil against the king of Elam, and destruction overtook him.
        (42) And King Nebuchadnezzar triumphed,
        (43) he captured the land of Elam, he plundered its possessions.
        (44) When he had returned to Akkad in triumph and with joy of heart,
        (45) Ritti-Marduk, the head of the House of Bit-Karziabku,
        (46) whom the king, his lord, had beheld among the enemies and warriors,
        (47) concerning the towns of Bit-Karziabku, in the district of Namar, all that there are,
        (48) which under a former king had been freed, but through enemies had, contrary to their laws, come under the jurisdiction of Namar,
        (49) informed the king his lord, Nebuchadnezzar,
        (50) and the king enquired of the judges, and
        (to) the towns, as in days of old, (he gave) their freedom
        (51) from the whole jurisdiction of Namar,
        (decreeing) that officers of the king,
        (52) and the governor of Namar, and the commandant are not to enter a town;
        (53) that the master of the horse is not to bring stallions or mares
        (54) into the towns;
        (55) that revenue in cattle or sheep is not to be taken for the king or for the governor of Namar;
        (56) that a . . . . . or a homer of cypress is not to be rendered;
        (57) that a homer is not to be given to the tax-gatherer ;
        (58) that the master of the riding horses is not to enter the towns,
        (59) nor to take therefrom mares as riding horses;
        (60) that the fences (?) of the plantations and the date-palm groves no man is to cut down;
  • Curator's comments

    Though the stele is inscribed with a charter of privileges, the form of the stone and the presence of symbols justify its classification among the kudurru-texts. For a second charter of Nebuchadnezzar I, engraved upon a stone tablet, see 1863,0826.1 (BM. 90841).

    The kudurru of Gula-eresh 1907,1014.1 (BM 102485), if classified among the dated kudurrus, would be placed between the charter of Nebuchadezzar I and the kudurrus of Marduk-nadin-akhe's time, since it may be assigned to about the period of Enlil-nadin-aplu.The object was sent for moulding by Mr Derek Giles from 15 November 1982 and 10 March 1983 (WAA, 'Objects to Lab' book). In set with 1881,0428.33 (BM.91002). Moulded and cast; cast priced at 14 shillings by D. Brucciani (1910) and catalogued as "tablet sculptured in relief with a scene representing the worship of the Sun-god in the temple at Sippar, and inscribed with a record of the restoration of the temple, and particulars of the services to be held". The cast is listed as available in the British Museum Facsimile Service 'Catalogue of Replicas from British Museum collections' (n.d.), in the series "Boundary Stones and Memorial Tablets".

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  • Bibliography

    • Curtis & Tallis 2012 16 bibliographic details
    • De Meyer L 1980a no.50, p.101 bibliographic details
    • King 1912a no.VI, pls. LXXXIII-XCI, p.29-36 bibliographic details
    • Leichty E 1986a p.173 bibliographic details
    • Frame, RIMB 2 RIM.B.2.4.11 bibliographic details
  • Location

    On display: G55/dc2

  • Exhibition history

    Exhibited:

    2012 24 May-30 Sep, BM, 'The horse: from Arabia to Royal Ascot'
    2008 26 Jun-5 Oct, Berlin, Vorderasiatisches Museum-Pergamonmuseum, 'Babylon, Myth and Truth'
    2008 14 Mar-2 Jun, Paris, Musée du Louvre, 'Babylon'
    Babylonian Room, wall-case 10

  • Subjects

  • Associated names

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1882

  • Department

    Middle East

  • BM/Big number

    90858

  • Registration number

    1882,0522.1800

  • Additional IDs

    • 1882,0522.22
Limestone Kudurru from the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I; inscribed; gods represented by astral and other symbols, witnessing decree.

Limestone Kudurru from the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I; inscribed; gods represented by astral and other symbols, witnessing decree.

Image description

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