Collection online

kudurru

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    102485

  • Description

    Limestone kudurru or boundary stone: consisting of a boulder of dark limestone, the faces of which have been slightly flattened by rubbing in order to take inscriptions and sculptures in relief. The stone tapers rather more towards the top than towards the base. The upper portion of the Obverse, for a space of 9 1/4 in., and the right side and part of the left side of the stone, are engraved in low relief with a series of emblems, the greater number of which are arranged within two registers separated by plain bands. Faces A and B, Upper register, (1) Solar disc, (2) Crescent, (3) Eight-pointed star, (4) Horned headdress upon a shrine, (5) Horned headdress upon a shrine, (6) Turtle upon a shrine, (7) Twin spirals upon a shrine (the spirals here curl inward and spring from a stem, thus presenting striking differences from the so-called inverted yoke), (8) Wedge upon a shrine (the thicker end of the wedge is here indented, and its face is ornamented with a decorative band), and (9) Spear-head upon a shrine; Lower register, (10) Lightning-fork upon a shrine, (11) Lamp upon a shrine, (12) Yoke upon a shrine, (13) Scorpion upon a shrine, (14) Dog upon a shrine, (15) Lion-headed mace a upon a shrine; below the second register on Face B, (16) Sheaf of corn upon a shrine; Left side and top of stone, (17) Serpent. The emblems in the Lower register are separated from the shrines on which they rest by a plain band. Below twin spirals, wedge upon a shrine and spear upon a shrine in the Upper register the engraver has left a similar band, but there he has cut it into sections, each of which forms a base for an emblem or a heavy cornice for its shrine. The lower part of the Obverse and the whole of the Reverse are devoted to the text, which records a deed of a gift recording a grant of five 'gur' of corn-land, in the district of Edina in Southern Babylonia, to Gula-eresh by Eanna-shum-iddina, governor of the Sea-Land. The estate is described as bounded by Bit-Iddiatu, the estate of Amel-Marduk, the province of the Sea-Land, and the Edina-Canal. The surveyor was Amurru-bel-zeri, and the transfer was completed by Zakiru and Adad-shum-ibni, two high officials.

    More 

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 1125BC-1100BC
  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 14.25 inches
    • Length: 9 inches
    • Width: 5 inches
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column one
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) Five 'gur' of corn-land, one 'gan', measured by the great cubit, being reckoned at thirty 'ka' of seed,
        (2) in the district of Edina, on the bank of the Edina-Canal,
        (3) in the province of the Sea-Land, the prince marked out,
        (4) —adjoining on the upper length the House of Iddiatu,
        (5) adjoining on the lower length (the House of) Amel-Marduk, the . . . . .-officials,
        (6) on the lower width the province of the Sea-Land, on the upper width
        (7) the Edina-Canal,—and Eanna-shum-iddina,
        (8) the son of Daian-Bel, the governor of the Sea-Land,
        (9) to Gula-eresh, his . . . . . servant, presented it.
        (10) The surveyors of that field, Amurru-bel-zeri, the administrator,
        (11) Zakiru, the governor of Edina,
        (12) and Adad-shum-ibni, the . . . . .-official, measured the field, and
        (13) established it as the property of Gula-eresh.
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column four
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) (ilu)Nin-ib bêl ku-dur-r[i-e-ti]
        (2) kakkê(pl.) a-šar taḫâzi [ . . . . . . . . . ]
        (3) liḳ-ba-ma ka-mi-šu [ . . . . . . . . . ]
        (4) [li]š-zi-iz (ilu)Marduk šar [ilâni(pl.)]
        (5) bêl mâtâti ugar lâ [ . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (6) še-ri-is-su rabîta(ta) [ . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (7) (ilu)Nin-maḫ ba-n[a - . . . . . . . ]
        (8) i-lit-ti bîti-šu [ . . . . . . . ]
        (9) la šu-u lu-u [ . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (10) ilâni(pl.) bêlê(p[l.) . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (11) ištên(en) ûma [ . . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (12) šum-šu [ . . . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (13) ana da-r[a-a-ti . . . . . . . . . . ]
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) May Ninib, the lord of boundary[-stones],
        (2) weapons in the place of battle [ . . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (3) may he command (?), so that his captive [ . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (4) [may] he set! May Marduk, king of [the gods],
        (5) the lord of the lands, a district without [ . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (6) his great punishment [lay upon him]!
        (7) May Ninmakh, the creatre[ss . . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (8) the child of his house [ . . . . . . . . . . ],
        (9) [so that] neither he nor [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]!
        (10) May the gods, the lords [of . . . . . . . . . . ]
        (11) for a single day [not grant him life,]
        (12) and his name, [his seed, and his posterity]
        (13) for ev[er may they destroy]!
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column two
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) ma-ti-ma i-na la-bar ûmê(pl.)
        (2) lu-u šakin ṭe-mu lu-u gu-za-an-nu
        (3) lu-u bêl paḫâti lu-u za-za-ak-ku
        (4) lu-u ki-pu-ut mât tâmti ma-la
        (5) ba-šu-u lu-u ma-am-ma bêlê(pl.) UŠ-SA-DU(pl.)
        (6) ša da-ʾ- ta ḳišâti u šu-ul-ma-na
        (7) i-na šu-mu mâtâti šinâti
        (8) u pa-ki-ra-an eḳli
        (9) i-maḫ-ḫa-ru-ma i-dib-bu-bu
        (10) u-šad-ba-bu ki-iṣ-ṣa-ta
        (11) ni-šir-ta i-šak-ka-nu
        (12) mi-iṣ-ra ku-dur-ra u-saḫ-hu-u
        (13) eḳlu ul na-din-ma ul ma-siḫ-mi
        (14) i-ḳab-bu-u (abnu)narâ an-na-a
        (15) ša (m. ilu)Gu-la-ereš(eš) ibni-ma
        (16) i-na pâni-šu ilâni(pl.) rabûti(p\.) u-kin-nu
        (17) aš-šu ar-ra-a-ti limnêti(pl.) ša i-na lib-bi
        (18) šaṭ-ru i-pal-la-ḫu-ma sa-ak-la
        (19) sa-ma-a giš-ḫab-ba la mu-da-a
        (20) u-šiš-šu-ma ul-tmn aš-ri-šu u-na-ka-ru
        (21) a-na nâri i-na-as-su-ma i-na ir-ṣi-ti
        (22) i-tam-mi-ru a-šar la [a]-ma-ri i-ša-ka-nu
        (23) (ilu)A - nu (ilu)En-lil (ilu)E-a u (ilu)Nin-maḫ
        (24) ilâni(pl.) rabûti(pl.) ar-rat la nap-šu-ri
        (25) limutta(ta) li-ru-ru-šu išid-su lissuḫû
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) Whensoever in times to come
        (2) an administrator, or a governor,
        (3) or the governor of a province, or a
        (4) or any officials of the Sea-Land that there
        (5) may be, or any owners of adjacent estates,
        (6) who shall accept bribes, gifts or presents
        (7) in respect of these lands,
        (8) or of any claimant to the estate,
        (9) and shall make a claim,
        (10) shall cause a claim to be brought,
        (11) or shall cause curtailment or diminution (therein),
        (12) or shall destroy land-mark or boundary-stone,
        (13) or shall say "The field was not presented," or '' It was not measured,"
        (14) or, with regard to this memorial,
        (15) which Gula-eresh has made
        (16) and on whose face he has set the great gods,
        (17) because of the evil curses which are inscribed thereon
        (18) a man shall have fear, and shall therefore cause a fool
        (19) or a blind man, or a rogue, or one who does not understand,
        (20) to take (this stone) up, and he shall change it from its place,
        (21) or shall cast it into the river,
        (22) or shall hide it in the earth, or shall set it in a place where no man can see it,
        (23) may Anu, Enlil, Ea and Ninmakh,
        (24) the great gods, curse him with an evil curse that cannot be loosed,
        (25) may they tear out his foundation,
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column three
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) u zêr-šu li-il-ḳu-tum
        (2) (ilu)Sin bêlu rabû iš-ru-ba-a
        (3) zu-mur-šu ki-ma ṣu-ba-ti
        (4) li-la-bi-is-su-ma
        (5) i-na ka-mat ali-šu li-šib
        (6) (ilu)Nabû aplu ṣîru mu-kin
        (7) arḫi u šatti ûmê(pl.)-šu
        (8) li-kar-ri-ma
        (9) a-a ik-šu-da lit-tu-ta
        (10) (ilu)Gu-la bêltum(tum) ṣar-ri-ša
        (11) si-im-ma li-še-la-šu-ma
        (12) a-di bal-tu dâma(pl.) u šarḳa
        (13) ki-ma mê(pl.) li-ir-muk
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) and his seed may they snatch away!
        (2) May Sin, the great lord, with leprosy
        (3) as with a garment
        (4) clothe his body,
        (5) so that he may dwell by the wall of his city!
        (6) May Nabu, the exalted son, the establisher
        (7) of the month and of the year,
        (8) shorten his days,
        (9) so that he have no posterity!
        (10) May the lady Gula cause her burden (?)
        (11) of sickness to come upon him,
        (12) so that while he lives dark and bright blood
        (13) he may pass like water!
  • Curator's comments

    Although the kudurru is undated, and does not refer to any Babylonian king by name, there is no doubt as to the period to which it is to be assigned. For Eanna-shum-iddina, the governor of the Sea-Land, is clearly to be identified with the official of the same name, who, according to the stone tablet of Nabu-shum-iddina , held this post in the fourth year of Enlil-nadin-aplu. Moreover, the period of the stone may be determined on epigraphic grounds, since the forms of several of the signs are identical with those used in inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar I and Enlil-nadin-aplu. But Enlil-nadin-aplu's reign was not a long one, and Eanna-shum-iddina may have been appointed governor of the Sea-Land by Nebuchadnezzar, and have retained his office until the reign of Marduk-nadin-akhe, or even later. We are thus without sufficient evidence for deciding to whose reign the kudurru should be assigned, and it has consequently been classified as an undated kudurru. But its period may be fixed within a generation.

    More 

  • Bibliography

    • King 1912a no.XI, p.76, pls.I-IV bibliographic details
  • Location

    Not on display

  • Exhibition history

    Exhibited:

    Exhibition: 'Strokes of Genius-Contemporary Iraqi Art', 2000

  • Subjects

  • Associated names

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1907

  • Department

    Middle East

  • BM/Big number

    102485

  • Registration number

    1907,1014.1

COMPASS Title: Boundary stone (kudurru)

Unknown

COMPASS Title: Boundary stone (kudurru)

Image description

Recommend


Feedback

If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

View open data for this object with SPARQL endpoint

Object reference number: WCO23574

British Museum collection data is also available in the W3C open data standard, RDF, allowing it to join and relate to a growing body of linked data published by organisations around the world.

View this object

Support the Museum:
donate online

The Museum makes its collection database available to be used by scholars around the world. Donations will help support curatorial, documentation and digitisation projects.

About the database

The British Museum collection database is a work in progress. New records, updates and images are added every week.

More about the database 

Supporters

Work on this database is supported by a range of sponsors, donors and volunteers.

More about supporters and how you
can help  

Loading...