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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    South-Sea Annuities certificate.

  • Authority

  • Date

    • 1784 (13th November)
  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Length: 183 millimetres
    • Width: 147 millimetres
  • Location


  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    1 November 2011

    Treatment proposal

    Remove tapes. Surface clean where necessary. Return to C&M.


    On laid and watermarked paper. Object has been folded up in the past. Top left corner missing and small tear in that area. Light surface dirt, especially near margins. On verso: white stamp tabs in all 4 corners with a fugitive red border have been partially torn off in the past resulting in light skinning to the bottom left corner area. 3x tapes along the top edge (transparent paper with gum-based adhesive).

    Treatment details

    Surface cleaned recto and verso with grated and shaped Staedtler Mars Plastic eraser. Tabs (or their top layer) removed dry as far as possible. Debris and adhesive removed by swabbing with very lightly moistened cotton wool. Tear repaired with Japanese tissue and wheat starch paste. Corners humidified locally by spraying with water and pressed locally. Then whole object pressed between blotters overnight.

    About these records 

  • Subjects

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Acquisition notes

    On loan from ifs School of Finance (previously Chartered Institute of Bankers) between 1987 and 2009.

  • Department

    Coins & Medals

  • Registration number



If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

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Object reference number: CIB297735

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