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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Papal luggage sealing on string; lead; inscription and date; reverse: inscription and umbrella between two flowers

  • Date

    • 1825
  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Width: 2 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

      • Inscription Content

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

      • Inscription Content

        CIVITA VECCHIA 1825
  • Exhibition history


    1978 11 Sep-22 Oct, Llangollen, European Centre for Folk Studies, Spinning a Yarn

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    21 May 2012

    Treatment proposal

    consolidative electrolytic reduction


    Small white corrosion spots are present underneath an old wax/ paraffin coating. A textile thread is running through/ extending from the seal.

    Treatment details

    Stabilised by local electrolytic reduction using a 10% aqueous sulphuric acid electrolyte on cotton wool swabs with a stainless steel anode, for 0.5 hours. Washed with several applications of distilled water on cotton wool swabs, then dried with several applications of Industrial methylated spirits (ethanol, methanol) on cotton wool swabs.

    The treated areas were coated with 5 % Paraloid B72 (ethyl methacrylate copolymer) in actone.

    About these records 

  • Subjects

  • Department

    Britain, Europe and Prehistory

  • Registration number


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Object reference number: MCN12222

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