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  • Description

    Railing crossbar (suci), carved in limestone ('Palnad marble'); the inner face depicts Mandhāta sharing Sakka's (Shakra) throne and elaborate royal court in the Triastrimsa Heaven (the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods). A plethora of court activities and human types are depicted here, including female musicians and dancers.


  • Date

    • 2ndC
  • Production place

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Diameter: 83 centimetres
    • Thickness: 20 centimetres
  • Curator's comments

    Barrett 1954, 66 (entry 36) states that this roundel preserves both the outer and inner surfaces. It definitely does not. He claims that the lotus roundel depicted in Fergusson (1873, LV, 5) is the outer face of BM 12 (the current entry). The lotus roundel referred to in Fergusson is BM 16 (Knox 21 [q.v.]) and its back preserves the shattered remains of a narrative scene (probably the Elevation of the Bowl or a similar scene and not shown in Fergusson) and a pair of iron cramp scars indicating the connection of a further stone to its inner surface at some earlier period. When Barrett's book was published in 1954 the back of the BM 12 is likely to have been as smooth as it is today. It is unclear how this wrong juxtaposition of BM 12 and BM 16 could have been made.

    Kramisch 1933 pl.xv, fig.49.
    Bachhofer, 'Early Indian Sculpture', Paris 1929, pl.117 (left).


  • Bibliography

    • Knox 1992 23 bibliographic details
    • Ashton 1950 31 bibliographic details
    • Ashton 1950 32 bibliographic details
    • Tripe 1859 34 b bibliographic details
    • Barrett 1954 36 bibliographic details
    • Willis 2009 fig. 47 bibliographic details
    • Fergusson 1873 LXII, 2 bibliographic details
    • Marcel-Dubois 1937 pl.xv, fig.4 bibliographic details
    • Codrington 1926 pl.xxvi, fig.c bibliographic details
    • Stern & Benisti 1952 XXVIIIa bibliographic details
  • Condition

    Outer face is smooth-cut, tenons removed and edges of roundel now smooth-cut.

  • Subjects

  • Associated names

  • Associated titles

    • Associated Title: Mandhāta Jataka
  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Acquisition notes

    Acquired as the result of the abolition in 1879 of the India Museum (Exhibition Road, London) and the partition of its contents between the British Museum and the South Kensington Museum (Victoria and Albert Museum).

  • Department


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • Elliot no 125
    • IM 1876 no 50
Amaravati railing crossbar (inner face-Mandhatu jataka) (1880.7-9.12; Knox 23)

Amaravati railing crossbar (inner face-Mandhatu jataka) (1880.7-9.12; Knox 23)

Image description



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Object reference number: RRI1161

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