Alam (processional standard) for a Shi'i religious parade, made of gilded and openwork brass; with Arabic inscriptions.
- Made in: Iran
- (Asia,Middle East,Iran)
- Height: 127.5 centimetres
- Width: 26.7 centimetres
- Thickness: 4.5 centimetres
Inscription ScriptNasta'liq and Thuluth
Inscription Positionalong the shaft of the `alam from top to join with body
Inscription TransliterationAllah Jalla; Muhammad `Ali; Fatima; al-Hasan al-Husayn; `Ali Muhammad; Ja`far Musa; `Ali Muhammad; `Ali al-Hasan; `Ali Allah; Ya `Ali
Inscription TranslationGod is mighty;
Inscription CommentAfter 'God is mighty' in the roundel at the top of the `alam, thirteen of the fourteen Immaculate ones are listed in order. The 12th imam is not mentioned and the last roundel contains the names of `Ali and Allah.The largest roundel at the top of the pear-shaped end, is inscribed with the invocation 'Oh `Ali'.
The inscriptions are from top to bottom as follows:
Top roundel: Allah Jalla = “God is mighty”
Long cartouche: Muhammad `Ali = The Prophet Muhammad and Imam ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (first Imam)
Roundel: Fatima = Bibi Fatima (daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, wife of Imam ‘Ali and mother of Imams al-Hasan and al-Husayn)
Long cartouche: al-Hasan al-Husayn = Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husayn (second and third Imams)
Roundel: `Ali Muhammad = Imam ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn Zain al-‘Abidin and Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Baqir (fourth and fifth Imams)
Long Cartouche: Ja`far Musa = Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq and Imam Musa ibn Ja’far al-Kazim (or al-Kadhim) (sixth and seventh Imams)
Roundel: `Ali Muhammad = Imam ‘Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (or al-Rida) and Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Taqi al-Jawad (eighth and ninth Imams)
Long Cartouche: `Ali al-Hasan = Imam ‘Ali ibn Muhammad Naqi al-Hadi and Imam Hasan ibn ‘Ali al-‘Askari (tenth and eleventh Imams)
[NB: name of the twelfth Imam is missing: Imam Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdi]
Roundel: `Ali Allah = Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (first Imam) and Allah
Large roundel above the pear-shaped element: Ya `Ali = “Oh ‘Ali” (first Imam)
Pear shaped element: Allah Muhammad Fatima `Ali al-Hasan al-Husayn = Allah and the names of Ahl al-Bayt (i.e. People of the Prophet’s House)
The fourteen 'immaculate ones' in Ithna 'Ashari or Twelver Shiism comprise the Prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima and the 12 Shi'i Imams:
1. Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib
2. Imam al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali
3. Imam al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali
4. Imam ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn Zain al-‘Abidin
5. Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Baqir
6. Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq
7. Imam Musa ibn Ja’far al-Kazim (or al-Kadhim)
8. Imam ‘Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (or al-Rida)
9. Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Taqi al-Jawad
10. Imam ‘Ali ibn Muhammad Naqi al-Hadi
11. Imam Hasan ibn ‘Ali al-‘Askari
12. Imam Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdi
2004 7 Jan-7 Apr, Kuala Lumpur, Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, 'Mightier than the Sword'
2003 22 Mar-25 May, University of Melbourne, Ian Potter Museum of Art, 'Mightier than the Sword'
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Object reference number: RRM10460
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