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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site

 

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sealing

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    1981,0510.1

  • Description

    Sealing; lead; incomplete; obverse, an incomplete cruciform monogram; inscription in three of the four angles; reverse, incomplete inscription in four lines.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 8thC-9thC
  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Diameter: 31 millimetres (max)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        monogram
      • Inscription Script

        Greek
      • Inscription Position

        obverse
      • Inscription Language

        Greek
      • Inscription Transliteration

        THEOTOKE BOÉTHEI
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        Greek
      • Inscription Position

        obverse angles
      • Inscription Language

        Greek
      • Inscription Transliteration

        TÓ DU BÓ
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        Greek
      • Inscription Position

        reverse
      • Inscription Language

        Greek
      • Inscription Transliteration

        MARIANÓ KUBIKOV LARIÓ (?)
  • Curator's comments

    Note in register: the cruciform monogram with these letters in the four angles was at its most popular in this period; seals with this type of monogram decreased in the 2nd half of the 9thC, but survived until the 10thC.

  • Condition

    Incomplete.

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    12 May 2000

    Reason for treatment

    Storage

    Treatment proposal

    Active corrosion spots stabilise and check others. topher

    Condition

    Active white lead corrosion in large spots; surface a dark buff colour of soil and corrosion layers obscuring any legend.

    Treatment details

    Washed in Industrial methylated spirits (ethanol,methanol) Stabilized by consolidative electrolytic reduction in a 5% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate electrolyte using stainless steel anodes, for 40 hours. The reduced lead was rinsed in tap water then neutralised in dilute sulphuric acid and finally washed in gently running tap water for 4 hours, until the pH of the water remained unchanged. It was dried through Industrial methylated spirits (ethanol, methanol) and gently brushed with a soft glass bristle brush to enhance the legends. Consolidated using 10% Paraloid B72, ethyl methacrylate copolymer, in acetone, applied using brush.

    About these records 

  • Subjects

  • Department

    Britain, Europe and Prehistory

  • Registration number

    1981,0510.1

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Object reference number: MCB3860

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