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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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offset / album

  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Page from an album of watercolour paintings, recto and verso with offset (upside down) of pale pink text block without text. Flowers in margin include one large pale pink tulip, grasses and other smaller pink flowers with green stalks. Fainter on verso than on recto.
    See 1986,0625,0.1 for description of album.


  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 18thC(early)
  • Production place

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 14.7 centimetres (Manuscript)
    • Width: 10 centimetres (Manuscript)
    • Thickness: 3.2 centimetres (Manuscript)
    • Height: 14.7 centimetres (Folio)
    • Width: 9.8 centimetres (Folio)
  • Curator's comments

    The album consists of depictions of buildings, figures and exotic animals in Istanbul; including scenes of punishment. Several pages inscribed. Many pages marbled, others bearing imprint of missing leaves with découpage (?). Although register says 'stencils', the lack of sharpness, suggestion of oil around the flowers and stalks, and identical design on recto and verso suggest that these pages are offsets, not stencils. Leather binding with sunk, gilded, stamped and tooled decoration. Red leather binding with Chinese cloud bands and decoration in gold and black. Cover design has cloud corners and ogival medallion at centre, flanked above and below by escutcheons. Many pages were removed prior to acquisition.


  • Subjects

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Acquisition notes

    funds from Central Reserve

  • Department

    Middle East

  • Registration number


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Object reference number: RFM35835

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