What just happened?

To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Collection online

Additional options
Production date to

Or search by



  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Limestone ostracon; two pieces re-joined. A copy of the Teaching of Amenemhat (11 to end 12, and 13a to 14a).

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 14.8 centimetres
    • Width: 18.5 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

      • Inscription Position

        both sides
      • Inscription Comment

        Painted,red and black. 4 lines on one side; 2 lines and signs on other. The four lines are a copy of the Teaching of Amenemhat (13a-14a).
  • Curator's comments

    The copy of the Teaching of Amenemhat is unpublished; identified by R. J. Demaree, pers. comm 2008.
    Unpublished in F. Adrom, Die Lehre des Amenemhet (BAe 19, 2006).
    Translation of Amenemhat: Parkinson, The Tale of Sinuhe and other Ancient Egyptian Poems 1940-1640 BC (Oxford World's Classics 1999), 203-11.


  • Condition

    fair (repaired)

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number



If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

View open data for this object with SPARQL endpoint

Object reference number: YCA16691

British Museum collection data is also available in the W3C open data standard, RDF, allowing it to join and relate to a growing body of linked data published by organisations around the world.

View this object

Support the Museum:
donate online

The Museum makes its collection database available to be used by scholars around the world. Donations will help support curatorial, documentation and digitisation projects.

About the database

The British Museum collection database is a work in progress. New records, updates and images are added every week.

More about the database 


Work on this database is supported by a range of sponsors, donors and volunteers.

More about supporters and how you
can help