- Dipaka Raga
Painting from an album bound in red silk designed fabric containing a complete set of Jaipur 19th century Ragamala paintings.
Two lovers are seated on a sofa on a terrace gazing into each others eyes. A lady attendant behind the couple holds a lit torch signifying the flame of desire, while two lady musicians seated on the left sing and play a drum. The shimmering gold jama and turban of the nayaka and the ghagra of the nayika is perhaps a deliberate indication of the burning desire felt by the couple in their love for each other. The hero holds up a mirror in front of the heroine, perhaps because lovers can never get enough of gazing at each other! The terraced setting and pavilion in the background is in the same style as previous paintings in this series.
- Made in: Rajasthan
- (Asia,South Asia,India,Rajasthan)
- Height: 31.9 centimetres (page)
- Width: 24.2 centimetres
- Height: 24.7 centimetres (painting including all margins)
- Width: 19.2 centimetres
Inscription Languagebraj bhasa
Inscription TranslationThe beauty of both the lover and the beloved is glorious; They shine as a pair in the midst of the grove. The heart of the lady is resplendent And she is accompanied in her dalliance by her confidantes, Dipaka Raga is the crown of all musical modes And thus he shines in all his beauty amongst other modes.
Inscription CommentTranslation taken from Gangoly, O.C., 'Ragas and Raginis,Vol.2.', Plate XLI.
Inscription PositionFront cover of Album
Inscription Languagelocal dialect, probably Rajasthani
Inscription Transliteration(Difficult to transliterate the beginning. Text unclear). - - Pana muraqqo pame 36. Labar 2.
Inscription Translation( -? - ). Album has 36 folios. Number 2.
Inscription CommentThe text inscribed above each illustration is attributed to a poet named Lal by the scholar Ebeling, K. in 'Ragamala Painting' and most translations have been verified by matching the original with the brajbhasa texts in O.C.Gangoly's book 'Ragas and Raginis, Vol.2.' Some have been translated with the help of Dr. Rupert Snell from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London.
The series is a complete one of thirty six based on the 'standardized painters system' existing in Jaipur during the 19th century. Black ink floral sprays on first and last pages.
Jaipur 19th century Ragamala paintings characteristically depict text in enclosed decorative panels or cartouches on top of each painting. (Ebeling, K., 'Ragamala Painting', 1973. Pg.228, illustration 148.) The rasa is of love in union (sambhoga sringara). Dipaka raga was supposed to have miraculous powers of invoking heat and light. Dipaka which means light, is symbolically conceived of as the fire of passion in this raga in which a prince burning with desire seeks his beloved. In the course of time, Dipaka ragas came to be painted with a lady holding a lit torch as a symbol to signify the raga, while emphasis was placed on the theme of love in union.
- Associated with: Ganges, River
- (Asia,India,River Ganges)
Album bound in red silk designed fabric containing a complete set of Jaipur 19th century Ragamala paintings. The series is a complete one of thirty six based on the 'standardized painters system' existing in Jaipur during the 19th century. Black ink floral sprays on first and last pages. Nata ragini is sometimes depicted as a male and sometimes a female in ragamala paintings. Here she is on horseback fighting a foot soldier with a sword. Another dead or wounded soldier lies sprawled on the floor in the foreground, his sword broken. Birds surround and peck at him. The foreground on which he lies is painted a dark green contrasting with the pale green hillock behind. The landscape with clumps of foliage here and there looks artificial and contrived. Two angels with green wings appear to be raising a toast to each other! The desolate nayika (heroine) yearns for her lover. She is shown seated on a gold chair with lilac striped cushion, holding two flowers in her hand. Her companion who recites the story of the beloved nayaka (hero) who is away also holds two lotus buds. An attendant with flywhisk stands behind the chair. Malsri Ragini wears an ornate gold and dark blue ghagra, brief yellow choli and blue and gold veil. The attendants' green and brown skirt and brown and gold veil and the companions' lilac and yellow skirt and pale green transparent veil, bordered with thick gold bands contrast with the carpet in bright orange and gold. The pavilion has sumptuously decorated patterns in gold paint on orange, blue, burgundy and white backgrounds.The sky in the left background has orange streaks as in previous paintings in this series depicting the time of day as dusk, a time associated with lovers/husbands returning home and, as in the case here, a time of yearning for the departed lover. An exceptionally tall lone palm tree in the background and flowering bushes dotted with lilac, yellow and red flowers framing the terrace in the foreground and background form the landscape. Patmanjari Ragini is upset by the absence of her beloved. She sits with clasped hands urging a parrot to come to her. Her friend, knowing of the heroine's yearning for her lover brings a parrot to her for distraction. A lady attendant with fly whisk stands behind the nayika. The ladies are clothed in colourful lilac, orange, blues, yellows and greens with ornate gold borders. The heroine's skirt of gold and blue flecks and dark pink blends into the gold and blue pattern on the bolster cushion on which she rests. The pavilion and carpet on the terrace are painted in the same ornate style as previous paintings in this series. On a terrace the lover prepares to depart after a night spent with his beloved. The nayika is sad and refuses to acknowledge that her lover is leaving -- she is thus shown pretending to be asleep. She lies on an ornate bed richly decorated in hues of green, lilac, blue and gold patterns. She wears rich gold, yellow and brown while the nayaka is garbed in white jama, lilac shawl, orange and gold patka (sash) and yellow dotted pyjamas. Though not representing any religious deity, the hero in this painting has a halo! The landscape and sky are similar to others in this series. This Raga must have originated from Malwa, hence the name Malvakos, which was further simplified to Malkos. The hero loves music and the scene is that of a musical concert. The setting is on a carpeted terrace with ornate pavilion in the background. The loving couple are seated in close proximity and gaze into each others eyes. They are entertained by three lady musicians seated in front of them to the left of the terrace. Behind the couple stand four lady attendants holding accoutrements of fly whisk and a vessel containing perhaps betelnut, which is enjoyed while listening to music. The nayaka wears a simple white jama and an ornate red and gold turban with orange and gold bordered shawl, while the nayika is sumptuously clad in hot pink and gold ghagra, yellow choli and pink and gold bordered odhni. The lady attendants are costumed in rich colours of lilac, green, yellow, orange and bright pink with thick gold borders on skirts and veils. The nayika wearing a rich red and gold ghagra and heavily jeweled in pearls, day dreams and longs for her lover while plucking blossoms into a bowl. The outdoor setting has an abundance of flowering bushes and foliage in the foreground bordering a lake in the background, and a tree with heavily shaded leaves to the right background. A light green hillock frames the heroine. A city in diminutive scale is in the distance. A lady wearing a gold and red skirt and veil is seated on a terrace worshipping Brahma, the four headed deity seated in the centre. A lady attendant wearing a black and gold striped skirt with lilac pleated front and bright orange veil, fans the haloed deity, Brahma, who holds the sacred books (vedas) in two of his four hands. His four heads are crowned, he is bare chested and heavily jeweled and clad in a lilac and gold bordered waistcoat and yellow and gold dhoti. He sits on a green and gold carpet and rests on a decorative gold and green cushion. Khambavati Ragini in front of Brahma kneels with hands reverentially clasped together, worshipping him with ardent bhajans. the pavilion, carpeted terrace and sky are in the same colours and style as previous paintings. Two lovers on a terrace walk toward a bedchamber being prepared by a maid. The bed is in a green and red checked design with green and gold cushions. The nayaka wears a white long jama over flamboyant green dotted pyjamas, an orange and gold scarf draped around his shoulders, an orange gem studded turban with a feather. The nayika wears a lilac and gold skirt, red and blue checked blouse and red veil bordered in gold. The carpet, pavilion, and sky are similarly treated as other paintings in this series. The miffed kantabhisarika nayika (one who is sought after by her beloved), refuses to speak to her lover who falls at her feet trying to appease her. An elderly confidante appears to be entreating the nayika to relent by pointing emphatically to her beloved kneeling, but the nayika remains unmoved. Her body turns away from him emphasizing her negative attitude. The nayika wears a white jama, green and gold turban and green patka (sash) and the nayika is richly garbed in gold and green patterned skirt, yellow choli and royal blue and gold bordered odhni. The nayika is seated on an ornate gold chair on which rests a striped lilac cushion with green and yellow borders. Gold paint is used lavishly in patterns on orange carpet, burgundy awning, blue and mauve panels of pavilion walls, courtyard wall and thick stripes on textile roller blind. The foliage in the foreground and sky are treated in a similar fashion to the other miniatures in this series. The sorrowful Gunakari Ragini, clad in red and gold skirt, yellow choli and dark blue veil bordered in gold, sits on the edge of a bed on a terrace arranging flowers in two vases. She is sad as her husband is away. Her friend wearing a lilac and gold skirt and orange veil, stands to her left with outstretched hands helping her arrange the flowers. The setting is the usual one of a terraced pavilion, the foliage and sky are similar to other paintings in this series. Hindola or festival of the swing is an ancient custom appropriated into the Krishna cult. The personification of Hindola Raga therefore usually depicts Krishna on a swing surrounded by lady musicians. In this painting Krishna and Radha gaze at each other while seated on a swing surrounded by lady musicians. The blue skinned Krishna seated in lalita asana is clad in a yellow dhoti, wears an ornate gold turban with a peacock feather, his right hand lovingly thrown over Radha's shoulders, his left pulling at a red rope that aids in swinging. Radha seated to the left of Krishna holds a red rope in her right hand, her left behind her Lord. Lady attendants clothed in colourful costumes with a lavish use of gold on either side of the holy couple sing, play musical instruments, aid in the swinging and fan Radha and Krishna. The ornate gold frame of the swing has a marvellous peacock seated on the centre of the frame -- on either side are two peahens, symbols of the monsoon season and of love. The sky is filled with perfectly rounded blue clouds outlined in gold paint. The swing stands on a terrace bordered by green foliage on an aquamarine and gold patterned carpet. Two vases filled with flowers stand, symbolic of love in union, on a lilac and gold table in the centre foreground. The abhisarika heroine (one who goes out to meet her beloved) is portrayed here sumptuously attired in red, gold and yellow giving the finishing touches to her make up preparatory to her tryst. She examines herself in a mirror, which an attendant holds up before her. Another lady attendant holds vessels of her toilette and stands respectfully behind the bed. The setting is the familiar one of a terrace in front of a pavilion richly painted in the ornate style of this Ragamala series. A pink and gold fence separates the horizon from the terrace. A haloed lady garbed in gold and orange pleated skirt, yellow choli and transparent brown dotted veil, is a nayika who, separated from her lover, sings songs on the vina (a musical instrument) in praise of her beloved to while away the hours of loneliness in separation. Deer enchanted by the melody are attracted to Todi Ragini and surround her in sympathy, one black deer standing out in contrast to the pale coloured herd. The setting is on the banks of a lake filled with lotuses -- the outlines of a town in diminutive scale can be seen in the far distance. The vina is painted in ornate blue and gold design. Stiffly articulated lotuses in the lake, flowering bushes dotted with colour and small patches of flowers in the foreground add to the rural setting. This Ragini represents physical prowess and strength. Desakh Ragini, a female athlete in male sporting attire grasps a golden pillar in an upside down position. She is strong and not hampered by modesty; her clothes lie in a heap to one side.Two male athletes in the foreground seem to be similarly employed in athletic pursuits. A lotus filled lake, green fields dotted with trees and an orange streaked sky filled with white, billowing clouds complete the background of the painting. A blue skinned haloed ascetic, bare chested, clad in lilac dhoti and shawl, sits on an orange and gold patterned carpet in a rural setting. His blue skin is an indication of a body smeared with ashes. Two richly ornate gold, black and green cushions lie behind him. The ascetic communicates with his young disciple, naked except for a thread around his waist. He sits in front of his guru writing on a tablet that he holds in his right hand. His left hand holding a pen stretches out to an inkpot on the ground in front of him. The time of the scene is night, as indicated by the black horizon and deep shading of tree on the right; thus a small fire is lit between the two in order to emanate some light. A couple of dogs lie to the side, a smiling tiger and placid deer coexist in harmony! Bizarre lilac rocks in oblong shapes frame an opening to the ascetic's cave in the background. Similarly coloured rocks sprouting greenery and lotuses complete the foreground. A lady on a terrace rushes into a pavilion covering her head from a threatening storm that appears to be advancing. She looks up at the gray, orange and black perfectly rounded thunderclouds outlined in gold paint. Her friend awaits her on the terrace. Both wear rich costumes in hues of lilac, green, yellow, gold and red. The terrace and pavilion are in the same highly decorative style as previous paintings in the series. Two lovers are seated on a sofa on a terrace gazing into each others eyes. A lady attendant behind the couple holds a lit torch signifying the flame of desire, while two lady musicians seated on the left sing and play a drum. The shimmering gold jama and turban of the nayaka and the ghagra of the nayika is perhaps a deliberate indication of the burning desire felt by the couple in their love for each other. The hero holds up a mirror in front of the heroine, perhaps because lovers can never get enough of gazing at each other! The terraced setting and pavilion in the background is in the same style as previous paintings in this series. A nayika, clothed in gold and red skirt, seated on a terrace, is drawing a portarit of her beloved, who is away. A blue inkpot lies in front of her. The bedchamber behind her is symbolic of her longing for her lover. Her confidante seated in front of her, clad in vibrant colours of lilac and yellow enumerates the qualities of the nayaka who is away to the nayika. The celebration of spring and the festival of holi are depicted here. Women sprinkle coloured powder on Krishna and Radha in the centre. Krishna wears a bright orange jama and shawl, jewelry and orange and gold turban. Radha in lilac and gold skirt joins in the revelry; while one arm is nonchalantly thrown around Krishna's shoulder, the other hand sprinkles rangoli (coloured powder) on him. Coloured powder is depicted in red swirls above the group. Lady attendants, friends and musicians surround the couple. One lady holds a small mango blossom -- symbol of the coming of spring. The terrace is gaily painted in pink and yellow stripes. A white wall separates the revelers from the horizon beyond. Trees peep over the wall. Krishna dressed in royal garb of yellow dhoti, orange vest and gold turban crowned with a peacock feather sits on a rocky outcrop holding a sword and elephant tusk. The slain elephant lies in an uncanny position in the right foreground while royal bards to the left salute Krishna. It is dark, the sky is black and trees in the background are deeply shaded. Hunting was usually carried out at night or in the early hours of the morning. A couple stand caressing in front of a bedchamber on a seagreen and gold carpet. The nayaka wears a shaded lilac jama and orange pyjamas, orange and gold shawl and red jeweled turban. The nayika wears a gold ghagra, yellow choli, dark blue odhni which she twists with her hand in orde rto portray emotion. Another house is shown in the left background. Neat shrubbery dotted with flowers border the terrace in the foreground and background. The sky is dark imdicating a night scene. The nayika sits on a terrace holding her arms over her head and twisting her body, a standard iconography for this ragini. She is dressed in brilliant gold patterned skirt, yellow choli and blue and red gold bordered odhni. Two lady attendants stand on either side one holding a fly whisk, the other appears to be clapping her hands and singing, pehaps to distract her distressed mistress. A haloed and blue skinned Krishna dressed in orange and gold jama with feathered crown and Radha dressed sumptuously in gold and red sit on a yellow cushioned sofa entertained by musicians. Narada, an ancient rishi, inventor of the vina and of several works of musical theory is the ascetic clothed in yellow dhoti playing the vina. The other figure is a legendary kinnara, half man, half horse sumptuously garbed in lilac jama with gold patka (sash) and a lilac and gold turban. He is usually included in paintings of Sri Raga. Two lady attendants stand behind the couple one with a peacock feathered fly whisk, the other holding a torch. Panchama ragini clothed in red and gold skirt, yellow blouse and purple flowing veil sits on a blanket in front of two brightly striped bolster cushions listening to two female musicians seated on either side of her. The musicians are in brightly coloured costumes of green, lilac, orange and gold; the lady on the left plays a sitar. A decorative blue, white and gold coloured wall frames a doorway of lilac coloured bricks contained in a gold frame. An abhisarika nayika, (one who goes out to meet her lover) in a tribal leaf skirt, breasts covered with a white veil, sits on a blanket on a carpeted terrace. The haloed nayika holds two black snakes in her hands and whiles away the hours in the company of snakes that seem to offer her consolation in her unsatisfied lovelorn condition. Two lilac clad female musicians seated in front of the nayika play stringed instruments that lull the serpents and make them dance. Two more snakes slither toward them from the lilac coloured rocks in the foreground. The nayika appears to be a devout Vaisnavite, clad in yellow (Krishna's colour) worshipping a saligrama (Visnu's symbol) in a shrine in front of her. She sits on a chair chanting mantras while counting beads on her rosary covered with a stocking in her hand. A lady attendant standing behind her fans her with a flywhisk. Trays of vessels, prayer beads and a lamp lie in front of her. They are on a terrace in front of an architectural structure. A lake filled with lotuses is in the left background, undulating hills appear in the distance. A forlorn haloed nayika clad in red and gold wanders about in a meadow with two garlands in her hands. Perhaps the garlands are for her beloved who has not come. Lotus covered streams in the foreground and background are separated by a green hillock between. The sky is dark indicating a late hour. The scene follows a prototype of Kedar Ragini, that of a nobleman in conversation with an ascetic, the nobleman's boat ready for departure nearby. A bearded, haloed ascetic clad in lilac dhoti sits in conversation with a noble visitor clad in sumptuous gold costume. Attendants with flywhisk stand behind the nobleman and the ascetic. the boat has an elephant head in front and a gold pavilion with a seat for the nobleman. A boatman snoozes on board. Megha is a seasonal melody of the rainy season and the usual scene of this ragamala painting is that of a Lord dancing in the rain surrounded by lady musicians. A yellow garbed Krishna with peacock feathered crown and orange shawl dances surrounded by two pairs of lady musicians on either side. The ladies on the left sing and play the vina; the ladies on the right play a lute like instrument and a drum. Two peacocks face each other in the foreground symbolic of love and the rainy season. The background features a lotus filled pond with flowering trees and bushes. The sky is covered with thunderclouds ringed in gold with orange snake like streaks of lightning. A separated heroine, a 'virahini' in a mood of renunciation has become an ascetic. Adopting the guise of a male she sits in a yogic posture. She has a halo and blue coloured skin indicative of having attained the special powers of a siddha. She sits on a carpeted terrace in front of a pavilion listening to two lady musicians playing devotional music on a sitar and tambourine. A pink city in diminutive scale is seen in the left horizon beyond a lotus filled lake. Black clouds fill the sky indicative of the monsoon season. Gujari Ragini sitting on a gold bolstered chair on a terrace plays on the vina and sings in praise of her beloved. Her friend standing in front of her keeps time by clapping her hands, an attendant behind her holds a fly whisk. The lone peacock standing in the foreground on the terrace symbolizes her loneliness and yearning for her beloved. The heroine expecting her lover who has not come whiles away time by playing on the vina. Clad in red and gold ghagra and red odhni, she rests on a bed propped up by a cushion. Her friend who has dropped in to keep her company keeps rhythmic time by clapping her hands. To her right a lady attendant holds a fly whisk. A small table laden with bowls of food and beverage is placed in front of her. The sky is overcast with black clouds. The nayika is a 'vipralabdha nayika', one who has waited in vain for her lover and finally in disgust gives her heart to the peacocks whom she is shown feeding! The setting is a formal garden with water fountains, flowered beds and a gold covered canopy in the distance. A couple is seated on a terrace. The nayika wears red and gold the nayaka is clad in a white jama and gold pyjamas. The nayaka seems almost comical in his position symbolic of Kamadeva, the God of Love about to strike an arrow into the heart of his beloved seated directly in front of him. Kamadeva, the God of Love usually has a symbolic bow of flowers and arrows with which he pierces the hearts of unsuspecting victims. The sky is dark. The red cock crowing heralds the early hours of dawn; their passion has kept the lovers awake all night. Raga Bhairava is usually the first in a ragamala series; it is a melody sung in the morning. The green and gold haloed deity, Siva as Bhairava (one of his many manifestations) sits on a carpeted platform on a terrace. A black snake winds its way around his neck and a white snake sits on top of his head. He is bare chested and clothed in a pale lilac dhoti and shawl. Siva's iconographical details, the sacred river Ganges flowing from his locks and the third eye on his brow are finely delineated. A garland of skulls around his chest completes the iconography of Bhairava, a fearful aspect of the enigmatic God. The bluish/white coloured jeweled deity glances at his consort, Bhairavi who holds a vessel containing sandalpaste with which she is smearing the body of her Lord. Sandalpaste is usually reserved for Krishna in his role as Universal Lover of the gopis, while Siva's body is usually covered with vibhuti or ashes. Krishnas attributes and ways of worshipping him are scattered in many paintings in this series -- perhaps identifying the patron as a Vaisnavite. Five lady musicians seated to the extreme left of the painting amuse the holy couple, a lady attendant with flywhisk stands behind Bhairava, her upraised arm in a position of fanning her Lord. Another lady attendant in the right foreground grinds sandalpaste on an oblong stone. The ladies are sumptuously garbed in gold and brightly coloured skirts, brief blouses and transparent odhnis (veils) in hues ranging from bright orange and dark brown to black. Costumes are finely detailed with an abundance of gold dots and flecked patterns while veils are outlined in thick bands of gold paint. The ornate pavilion in the background painted in rich hues of royal blue, orange, burgundy and white is patterned in an exceedingly decorative flowered gold design with the lavish use of gold paint, as is the orange and gold patterned carpet covering the terrace. A bright blue sky with thick billowing clouds is painted in the left background of the canvas: orange streaks of sunlight below indicating the rising sun and imminent daybreak. Neatly ordered rows of bushy flowering plants deeply shaded with minute flowers in lilac, red and white border the terrace above and below. A Ragamala painting of Bhairavi ragini usually depicts Parvati worshipping Siva in his lingam form in a shrine. Here the shrine is set in the middle of a lotus filled lake, the waters representing the sacred Ganges whose waters run through Siva's locks. The shrine with Rajput styled chhatri (dome) is lavishly painted in a gold design and is set on an orange and gold carpeted terrace surrounded by blue and gold railings. An orange streaked and white clouded sky forms the far horizon together with diminutively scaled greenery and a golden pavilion in the right background. The left background is filled by a tree behind the shrine whose each leaf is outlined in brilliant gold paint. The shrine houses a linga set in a yoni capped by an ornate linga cover. Bhairavi sits directly in front of the shrine in a worshipping pose of hand to breast, singing bhajans (devotional hymns) or chanting mantras (sacred verses) in praise of Siva. A green and gold halo surrounds her head. She is garbed in a gold, brown and blue flecked ghagra, yellow choli and royal blue odhni with rich red and gold borders. Utensils of worship lie beside her. Her lady attendant wearing yellow stands respectfully behind her holding her prayer beads and utensils bearing unguents used to adorn the linga while worshipping. A young Brahmin sits praying on the extreme left of the terrace in the immediate foreground.
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Object reference number: RFI35328
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