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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Two sherds of Attic pottery closed vessel body, probably oenochoe; four rows of incised votive inscription on the outside, cut in panel. Vertical black strip with added red paint on right.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 550 BC (c.)
  • Production place

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

        body exterior
      • Inscription Language

      • Inscription Content

        ].κρι[.]ς μ[ | ]ε ανεθ[η]κε [ | τ]ορμο[θ]εμ[ |...]τηφροδι[
      • Inscription Translation

        (...)krios dedicated me, the son of Ermothemis (?) to Aphrodi(te)
      • Inscription Comment

        Post-firing graffito. Gardner 1888 misses some fragmentary letters and has three bars, not the two that survive, of the sigma, but the reading is sound.
  • Bibliography

    • Gardner 1888 p. 66, no. 819, pl. XXI, no. 819 bibliographic details
    • Bernand 1970 p. 688, no. 468 bibliographic details
  • Associated names

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Acquisition notes

    Excavated 1885-1886.

  • Department

    Greek & Roman Antiquities

  • Registration number


Two sherds of pottery closed vessel body; four rows of incised votive inscription on the outside.

Two sherds of pottery closed vessel body; four rows of incised votive inscription on the outside.

Image description



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Object reference number: GAA75921

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