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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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tablet case / tablet / seal-impression

  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Cuneiform tablet, still in its clay case: legal case from Niqmepuh, King of Iamhad (Aleppo) concerning the legacy of two houses; the seal impressions of ten witnesses (including the king) survive on the fragmentary case. Grooves framing same impressions were made by metal caps, probably of gold.

  • Authority

  • Date

    • 1720BC (circa)
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Length: 3.94 inches
    • Width: 2 inches
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

      • Inscription Position

      • Inscription Comment

        legal case from Niqmepuh, King of Iamhad (Aleppo) concerning the legacy of two houses
      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Comment

        of ten witnesses (including the king)
  • Bibliography

    • Frayne, RIME 4 RIM.E. bibliographic details
    • Frayne, RIME 4 RIM.E. bibliographic details
    • Frayne, RIME 4 RIM.E. bibliographic details
  • Location


  • Exhibition history


    2000 14 May-29 Oct, Germany, Berlin, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Seven Hills – Images and Signs of the 21st Century

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

  • Associated names

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Acquisition notes

    Excavated between 1936 and 1949.

  • Department

    Middle East

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • ATT/39/113 (excavation number)


If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

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Object reference number: WCT92039

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