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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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ostracon

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    EA55796

  • Description

    Ostracon, fragment from the body of a red-brown pottery ribbed vessel, the fabric is grey in section, interior covered with a dark-brown resinous deposit, with remains of sixteen lines of Coptic text written in black ink on the exterior, containing an order for payment.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 6thC-8thC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 142 millimetres (max)
    • Width: 98 millimetres (max)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Position

        exterior
      • Inscription Language

        Coptic
      • Inscription Transliteration

        Remains of 16 lines of Coptic text written in black ink, worn in places.
      • Inscription Translation

        Translation by W.E. Crum: "Give it to Apa Mine (Mena), from Enoch his father. Be so kind and give 11 small 'lahe' of wine to Apa Peter [son of?] Pargamos, that he may [take them ?] to the dwelling of Apa Macarius. Makes (total), wine, small 11. Lest you should [be] contentious, I have subscribed with my hand. Written 20th Mesore. Enoch, I consent. Written by me, Phoebammon"
  • Bibliography

    • Crum & Bell 1922 p.139 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    fair (text worn - two pieces joined)

  • Associated names

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1923

  • Acquisition notes

    Excavated 1913-1914 by Reginald Campbell Thompson on behalf of the Byzantine Research Fund.

  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number

    EA55796

  • Registration number

    1923,0327.63

  • Additional IDs

    • O.Sarga 169 (text edition abbreviation according to Oates et al 2001)

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Object reference number: YCA59125

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