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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site

 

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ostracon

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    EA55956

  • Description

    Ostracon, large fragment of the body of a pale-red pottery vessel, interior slightly grooved, exterior covered with a cream-coloured slip and remains of seven lines of Coptic text written in black ink, very worn in parts, containing a receipt.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 6thC-8thC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 106 millimetres (max)
    • Width: 86 millimetres (max)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Position

        exterior
      • Inscription Language

        Coptic
      • Inscription Transliteration

        Remains of seven lines of Coptic text written in black ink, very worn in parts.
      • Inscription Translation

        Translation by W.E. Crum: "Field of Nesieu. Thoth, 5th intercalary day, 3rd convoy, by Apa Menas. Wine, forty 'phorai'. Ditto, the same, forty-six. Ditto, the same, forty-six. Grand total 132 only. Written by Menas."
  • Bibliography

    • Crum & Bell 1922 p.203-4 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    fair (text worn and faded)

  • Associated names

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1923

  • Acquisition notes

    Excavated 1913-1914 by Reginald Campbell Thompson on behalf of the Byzantine Research Fund.

  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number

    EA55956

  • Registration number

    1923,0327.223

  • Additional IDs

    • O.Sarga 353 (text edition abbreviation according to Oates et al 2001)

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Object reference number: YCA59876

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