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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Glass lens: the form is conventional, a flat base with convex top. The glass is very pale green, almost colourless and almost transparent. The surface is now heavily filmed and is full of bubbles and minute cavities.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 2ndC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Diameter: 6.6 centimetres
  • Curator's comments

    W. M. F. Petrie 'et al.', 'Tanis' I (1885), 49, pl. XII (30).
    H. Coutts, 'Gold of the Pharaohs' (Edinburgh, 1988), p. 96 [83];
    C. Favard-Meeks in P. Brissaud & C. Zivie-Coche (eds), 'Tanis : travaux récents sur le tell Sân el-Hagar : Mission française des fouilles de Tanis, 1987-1997' (1998), p. 133.Brief letter about this object from Horace C. Beck (ANE CORRES 1927, q.v. Beck).


  • Bibliography

    • Cooney 1976 1804 bibliographic details
  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    20 June 2003

    Treatment proposal

    Consolidate loose weathered crust


    The object had a solid weathered crust in the 70s as shown in photographs from that time. Now much of that crust has been removed and a pitted surface exposed below. Some areas are vulnerable at edge of crust.

    Previous consolidation was carried out since loss with no existing museum record.

    Treatment details

    Consolidated small flakes using 20% Paraloid B72 (ethyl methacrylate copolymer) in acetone/IMS, 50/50 applied with a micropipette and small sable brush.

    About these records 

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


There is no image of this object, or there may be copyright restrictions

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Object reference number: YCA63030

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