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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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textile / cloth

  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Fragment of red linen cloth; medium quality. Edges torn. Worn. The weave is plain [warp-faced simple tabby] and the threads are S-spun; the stitch gauge is warp c.21-23 ends per 10mm and weft 14 picks per 10mm.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 700 BC - 0 BC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Length: 9 centimetres
    • Width: 40.5 centimetres
  • Curator's comments

    Information from Hero Granger-Taylor [1993]

  • Location


  • Condition


  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    5 May 1999

    Treatment proposal

    Will have to be displayed folded into 3 - size c. 14 x 10cm Pad out folds? Repair/strengthen as necessary? Crease removal and vacuum.


    The fragment was creased, fragile and torn.

    Treatment details

    The fragment was humidified using Goretex (polytetrafluoro ethylene,polyester laminate) to remove the creases. The tears were repaired using Japanese tissue coloured to match adhered with 5% Klucel G (hydroxypropyl cellulose) in Industrial methylated spirits (ethanol,methanol). A small pad was made of Polyester wadding covered in cream exhibition fabric so that the fragment could be folded into three.

    About these records 

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • BS.6523 (Birch Slip Number)
Fragment of red linen cloth; edges torn.

Fragment of red linen cloth; edges torn.

Image description



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Object reference number: YCA64880

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