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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Book of the Dead of Nebamun; sheet 35; red and black ink; yellow border.

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 25.4 centimetres (frame)
    • Width: 47 centimetres (frame)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

        cursive hieroglyphic
      • Inscription Translation

        Titles/epithets include : Estate Overseer; Treasury Scribe of the King in Pernefer; Dockyard Overseer of the King; Scribe reckoning silver and gold of the Lord of the Two Lands Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House Titles/epithets include : Dignitary; Scribe; Overseer of Herds of Amun Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House
      • Inscription Comment

        BD 112(?),113
  • Curator's comments

    To be published by Guenther Lapp (Basel).

  • Bibliography

    • Quirke 1993 121 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    Papyrus Survey: Condition Details: Papyrus Black ink Red ink Tabbed: kraft paper Mount Details: Sandwich: glass Binding: kraft paper Object Priority: B Mount Priority: C Overall Condition: B Curatorial condition comment: fair (incomplete)

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    15 October 1979

    Treatment proposal

    Backing removal.


    Papyrus fragment adhered to thin brown card, sandwiched between card board and glass. Glass cracked in on of the corners. The pH from the Brown card was approximately 4.4. Dimensions 415 x 200 mm. Slide Transparencies in WAP studio: After Conservation [PAP156], [PAP 157].

    Treatment details

    Pigments were tested for fugitivity with deionized water. Balck pigment very fugitive. A damp sheet of blotter was placed under glass in an attempt to remove the backing. Unfortunately this caused the black pigment to move onto the paper below. It was decided to avoid moisture in any future treatments. To remove the backing, thick wheat starch paste parte was applied to soften the card. It was then removed using a pair of tweezers. One area was left with ingrained adhesive which was not possible to remove. A diagram can be seen on the conservation reccord card in the WAP studio. The papyrus was mounted between sheets of glass.

    About these records 

  • Associated names

  • Associated titles

    • Title: Book of the Dead
  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • Sheet.35


If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

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Object reference number: YCA66050

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