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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Book of the Dead of Nebamun; sheet 7(three fragments); full colour vignettes; yellow border.

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 23 centimetres (frame)
    • Length: 56 centimetres (frame)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

        cursive hieroglyphic
      • Inscription Translation

        Titles/epithets include : Estate Overseer; Treasury Scribe of the King in Pernefer; Dockyard Overseer of the King; Scribe reckoning silver and gold of the Lord of the Two Lands Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House Titles/epithets include : Dignitary; Scribe; Overseer of Herds of Amun Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House Titles/epithets include : Lady of the House
      • Inscription Comment

        BD ?,?,?,? (vignettes only)
  • Curator's comments

    To be published by Guenther Lapp (Basel).

  • Bibliography

    • Quirke 1993 121 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    Papyrus Survey: Condition Details: Papyrus Black ink Red ink Pigment Mount Details: Sandwich: glass Binding: magic tape, copydex self adhesive carpet tape Object Priority: A Mount Priority: A Overall Condition: A Curatorial condition comment: incomplete/fragmentary

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    18 April 1990

    Treatment proposal

    Remove from card backing and mount.


    Object consists of three fragments from a Book of the Dead (vignettes from chapters 1,110 and 137/134) pasted onto brown wove paper secondary support. Pigments friable and papyrus brittle and fractured. Distorted fibres and white deposits on surface. Dimensions: 560 x 230 mm. Photographs, sample of backing and Slide transparencies [PAP 200] to PAP 216] in WAP studio.

    Treatment details

    Ph measured with meter and surface electrodes (pH 4.0). Black, red, white, blue pigments tested for solubility in Acetone (propan-1-one/dimethyl ketone). No solubility recorded. Tested for solubility in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone. All pigments soluble.

    Treatment of Fragment with Chapter 110: Pigments Consolidated by local application of 1% gelatin solution using fine pointed brush, carried out under binocular microscope. Tested pigments again for solubility in Acetone (propan-1-one/dimethyl ketone) and N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone. All pigments stable when both substances applied. Backing removed by immersion in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone for c.5 hours. Laid face down on Melinex polyester film and separated using tweezers and scalpel in small sections. Rinsed in acetone 3 times. Several fragments and fibres got detached.

    Treatment of Fragment with Chapter 1: Pigments consolidated and tested as on previous fragment. Fragment faced with lens tissue using 2% (-) Nylon in Methanol (2 coats applied). Imersion in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone overnight for 17 hours laid face down on melinex, Backing removed in small pieces with tweezers and microspatula. rinsed in Acetone with several changes. White surface deposit mechanically removed. Distorted fibres straightened by damping locally with Industrial methylated spirits (ethanol,methanol) and water (75:25). Fibres moved into correct position and pasted with GFW(?) paste. Released from facing locally by damping with IMS to move fibres from recto into correct position. Papyrus laid down on secondary support of Tengujo paper with paste. Remanining facing tissue removed by using IMS. (Treatments concluded 12 Mar 1982).

    Treatment of Fragments with Chapters 137/134: Brown paper backing trimmed with scissors. Areas visible through fractures brushed locally with Dow Corning silicone release agent (comp. unknown). Papyrus faced with Eltoline tissue using paraloid B72 (10%) applied on brush. Paper backing removal by placing damp blotting paper under glass and weights for 7 hours. Removed using tweezers and scalpel. Washed while supported on blotting paper and washing screen over running water for appros. 1&1/2 hours. Dried between gossammer tissue and blotting paper. Papyrus lined with Kuranai Japanese tissue and wheat stacrh paste and dried in the same way again.Facing removed using blotting paper in acetone. Facing peeled away using tweezers. Pressed between gossammer tissue and blotting paper. Excess lining tissue trimmed with scissors. Mounted between glass bound with Scotch Magic Tape No 810.

    About these records 

  • Associated names

  • Associated titles

    • Title: Book of the Dead
  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • Sheet.7


If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

View open data for this object with SPARQL endpoint

Object reference number: YCA66071

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