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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Funerary papyrus of Candace containing Second Book of Breathing (abridged version) written in hieratic script. First line on the recto is written in hieroglyphs. Greek text on the verso.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 1stC(late)-2ndC(early)
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 31.2 centimetres (frame)
    • Width: 27.2 centimetres (frame)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

      • Inscription Position

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

      • Inscription Position

        both sides
      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

      • Inscription Language

  • Bibliography

    • Quirke 1993 40 bibliographic details
    • Herbin 2008 pp.103-104, pls.62-63 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    Papyrus Survey: Condition Details: Papyrus Black ink Mount Details: Sandwich: glass Binding: copydex self adhesive carpet tape Object Priority: A Mount Priority: A Overall Condition: A Curatorial condition comment: fair

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    8 November 1991

    Treatment proposal

    Remove from mount, remove two backings (retain papyrus adhered to 1st backing), repair, consolidate delaminations, remount.


    Fractured papyrus mounted between glass. Brown paper backing with papyrus infills and window on verso. Dimensions: 230 x 270 mm. Tracings, backing samples, diagram, fragments (papyrus fragment with starnd of textile) and Slide transparencies [PAP 1371] and [PAP 1372] in WAP studio.

    Treatment details

    Removed from mount.Inks tested: Slightly fugitive. Infilled window area with bondina and inlay paper to even thickness of backing. Applied damp blotting paper under glass and weight overnight. Backing removed with scalpel and tweezers. Papyrus repair strips removed and laid asside. float washed on silk screen tray for 1 hour to remove residual starch paste. Dried under glass and weight. Repaired with Mino-toned Japanese paper tabs and wheat starch paste. Mounted between glass bound with Scotch magic Tape No 810.

    About these records 

  • Associated titles

    • Title: Book of Breathing
  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


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Object reference number: YCA66127

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