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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Description

    Papyrus written with black ink with demotic administrative text. Writing on recto only, 8 lines.
    Thompson's MS Catalogue (numbered as 10118 C): "accounts relating to wheat and barley [...] Date. Persian. prob. Darius. Origin. uncertain".

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 21.7 centimetres
    • Width: 11.2 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

      • Inscription Position

  • Condition

    Papyrus Survey: Condition Details: Papyrus Black ink Mount Details: Sandwich: glass Binding: magic tape Binding: copydex self adhesive carpet tape Object Priority: A Mount Priority: A Overall Condition: B Curatorial condition comment: fair (incomplete)

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    29 July 1986

    Treatment proposal

    Inlay and infill removal. Repair and remount seperately.


    Papyrus adhered to brown wove paper secondary support. Dimensions: 190 x 104 mm. Fragments and slide transparency [PAP 735] in WAP studio.

    Treatment details

    Removed backing using damp blotting paper method. Pressed. Papyrus consisting of several fragments. Assembled and repaired with Sekushu-shi Japanese paper tabs and wheat starch paste. Mounted between glass bound with Scotch magic Tape No 810.

    About these records 

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • Sheet.3
Papyrus; Demotic administrative text.

Papyrus; Demotic administrative text.

Image description



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Object reference number: YCA66570

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