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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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papyrus

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    EA10129

  • Description

    Papyrus(fragment); Greek text. Joined with EA 10455; mounted with 10140, 10141, 10456, 10458, 10461, 10462.

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Language

        Greek
  • Condition

    fair (incomplete)

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

    Treatment date

    18 October 2002

    Treatment proposal

    Remove papyri from old backings, repair, remount.

    Condition

    The fragment is mounted in a frame with 25 other fragments, some of which are adhered to cream backing paper and some inlaid, and all contained between a glass sandwich bound with linen tape. Several of the fragments have seals on them and so a spacer has been inserted inside the glass edges to avoid the pressure from the glass. Generally these seals, which rarely survive, are made from unbaked clay and are friable and insecurely attached to the papyrus. All the fragments have evidence of insect attack in the form of holes and/or surface damage. All those which have been inlaid into the backing paper are very fractured and cockled because they are unsupported by either backing or glass. This fragment is backed on paper and is fractured. The surface is friable and has small lifting areas. The ink is abraded, faint and smudged locally.

    Treatment details

    Examined under magnification and noted much frass on the surface which was brushed away as far as possible. PRELIMINARY TESTS: Tested for solubility of ink with water, the ink was not soluble. Removed backing with tweezers after applying blotters damped with water and IMS (1:1) to verso under weighted glass. Repaired with Japanese paper tabs [pre-toned with Aquarell watercolours] using Abra starch (wheat starch) paste. Dried between fresh blotters under weighted glass. A subsequent check for fibre matches between fragments found that this fragment joins 10455, previously mounted in the same frame. The fragment was joined with 10455 and mounted between glass with fragments 10140,10141, 10456, 10458, 10461 and 10462.

    About these records 

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1887

  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number

    EA10129

  • Registration number

    1887,0514.5

Papyrus(fragment); illegible text.

Papyrus(fragment); illegible text.

Image description

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Object reference number: YCA70547

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