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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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papyrus / document

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    EA75310

  • Description

    Papyrus: on recto, parts of 20 lines and upper margin only; on verso 2 lines, the surface of the papyrus partially obscured by a mud-like substance. Agreement concerned with tithe or pactum collection(?).

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 8thC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 20.6 centimetres
    • Width: 8.2 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        Coptic & Greek
      • Inscription Position

        front and back
      • Inscription Language

        Coptic
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) +
        (2) I, brother ('pason') Hatre the mon[k ... of Apa Apo-]
        (3) llo, am writing to my brother the scribe Geor[ge ...]
        (4) Whereas I asked yo[u and you gave me (?) ...]
        (5) ... and the places which belong to [...]
        (6) Apa Apollo [...]
        (7) ...-th indiction-year and I give you for [...]
        (8) ... of wheat (?) [...]
        (9) (Greek:) Total 10 1/2 gold solidi and 2 artabas of wheat and 2 artabas of barley and [...
        (11) of this same ye[ar ... ex-]
        (12) penses of the men of [...]
        (13) ... dwelling-place [...]
        (14) disturb you for [...]
        (15) be invalid. I will not be able to t[ransgress ?... this ?]
        (16) document as it is written [...]
        (17) he who wrote above [...]
        (18) the one belonging to Pmansholk/the place of weaving [...]
        (19)... we bear witness [...]
        (20) I Mena w[rote ...

        (Docket)
        (21) ...] Hatre for the neighbourhood
        (22) ...]... (Greek :) 2 artabas of wheat and 2 artabas of barley +
  • Curator's comments

    Mounted with 1996,0608.9-14Palaeography: competent, right-sloping majuscule with a few ligatures.

    Provenance: the introductory epistolary formula 'anok pason NN eishai', supported by
    acquisition details, suggests that this text was issued by a monk of the Hermopolite monastery of Apa Apollo; this hypothesis is reinforced by the fact that Apa Apollo is named as a beneficiary in l. 6. Pmansholk (l. 18) is otherwise attested only in a papyrus from Bawit.

    This document is structured like a loan agreement. It seems likely, however, that it was connected with tithe or 'pactum' collection because it mentions the phrase 'the places which belong to', the word 'neighbourhood', and begins with 'anok pason NN eishai', all features of tithe collection documents.

    More 

  • Bibliography

    • Clackson 2000 p.12, 72-4, pl.11 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    fair (incomplete)

  • Conservation

    See treatments 

  • Associated names

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1996

  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number

    EA75310

  • Registration number

    1996,0608.10

  • Additional IDs

    • P.Mon.Apollo 20
Papyrus; 5 lines of Coptic text on front.

Verso

Papyrus; 5 lines of Coptic text on front.

Image description

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Object reference number: YCA71471

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