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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site

 

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papyrus

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    EA75320

  • Description

    Papyrus: the left-hand side of the first 9 lines of this text are preserved on the verso. It was joined to a larger, unrelated, Coptic papyrus letter in antiquity, possibly for book-binding purposes. Another unconnected fragment of papyrus has been attached to the recto, bearing two lines of text, the second of which may have contained the formula, which is reconstructed in line 8 of the text below. Tithe collection contract/guarantee.

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  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 8thC (script)
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 13 centimetres
    • Width: 18.5 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Position

        front and back
      • Inscription Language

        Coptic
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) I, the scribe [NN, the monk of the 'Topos' of Apa Apollo]
        (2) in the region of Shm[oun the city of the nome, am writing to NN, the monk of this same 'topos'.]
        (3) Whereas [.,.] have [agreed with ... to give ... so that ... collect ... t-]
        (4) ithe for A[pa NN for the harvest of this same year so that ... gives the pactum/demosion]
        (5) which is [...
        (6) of] the measure [...
        (7) ...]...[...
        (8) ...] without judgme[nt, without law, and without any objection ...
        (9) ...]I[...
  • Curator's comments

    Mounted with 1996,0608.15-20Palaeography: a competent, flowing, semi-cursive hand with some serifs.

    Provenance: the acquisition details for this text suggest that its place of origin may have been the Hermopolite monastery of Apa Apollo.

    Very little information can be gathered from this fragmentary tithe collection text, which was probably drawn up in the monastery. Its author may have been a scribe.

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  • Bibliography

    • Clackson 2000 p.12, 66, pl.7 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    fair (incomplete - fragmentary)

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1996

  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number

    EA75320

  • Registration number

    1996,0608.20

  • Additional IDs

    • P.Mon.Apollo 15
Papyrus made up of 2 fragments joined together, probably for book-binding in antiquity. 9 lines of Coptic text on verso of main piece; 1 on recto. Tithe collection contract/guarantee.

Verso

Papyrus made up of 2 fragments joined together, probably for book-binding in antiquity. 9 lines of Coptic text on verso of main piece; 1 on recto. Tithe collection contract/guarantee.

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Object reference number: YCA72136

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