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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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papyrus / document

  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Papyrus: on the verso, the left-hand side of the first 8 lines of this Coptic text are preserved. The other side of the papyrus is blank. Tithe collection contract.

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 7thC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 9.5 centimetres
    • Width: 13.5 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

      • Inscription Language

      • Inscription Translation

        (1) + I, Ammoui, and Pamoun [the monks of the 'Topos' of Apa Apollo ... we are writing to NN]
        (2) the monk of this 'topos'. Whereas [... have agreed with ... to give ... so that you collect its ti-]
        (3) the and pay its pactum wh[ich is ...]
        (4) ... and the farmers of Anoua[(-?) ... in the har-]
        (5) vest of (the) tenth indiction-year and you (?) [...]
        (6) by day ... (of) Mesore ... [ ...
        (7-8) ...
      • Inscription Comment

        Noteworthy in this text are the name Ammoui (l. 1) and the 'farmers of Anoua[-]' (l. 4).
  • Curator's comments

    Mounted with 1996,0608.21-25Palaeography: A large majuscule hand, resembling 11, with letters irregularly positioned on the papyrus.

    Provenance: The acquisition details for this text suggest that its place of origin may have been the Hermopolite monastery of Apa Apollo.

  • Bibliography

    • Clackson 2000 p.12, 64, pl.7 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    fair (incomplete - fragmentary)

  • Associated names

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • P.Mon.Apollo 13
5 papyrus fragments from 4 Coptic texts, joined together possibly for book-binding. Text on 1 side only. Main text is a document issued by a member of the monastery.


5 papyrus fragments from 4 Coptic texts, joined together possibly for book-binding. Text on 1 side only. Main text is a document issued by a member of the monastery.

Image description



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Object reference number: YCA72137

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