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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

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papyrus / document

  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Papyrus: on recto, the right-hand side of 7 lines of what may be the beginning of this Coptic text is preserved. The papyrus is crumpled, hence the approximate nature of the dimensions given above. Contract for tithe or pactum collection, issued in the Hermopolite nome to the monastery of Apa Apollo.


  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 7thC (script)
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 7.3 centimetres
    • Width: 10 centimetres
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Position

        recto and verso
      • Inscription Language

      • Inscription Translation

        (1) ...]...[....
        (2) [... and my] brother Helias, the fathers of the 'dia-
        (3) [ko]nia' of the 'Ma' of Apa Jeremias,
        (4) [we are wjriting to brother ('pason') Klouj and bro-
        (5) ther ('pason') O]uenober, the monks
        (6) [of the 'to]pos' of Apa Apollo. Where-
        (7) [as] we gave you Percie(se)
  • Curator's comments

    Mounted with 1996,0608.30-32Palaeography: a large, irregular, but fairly competently written majuscule, with few ligatures. M, N, and Ѡ are wide, and sometimes also H, K, Π, and X.

    Provenance: this text was issued from the 'Ma' of Apa Jeremias to monks of the Monastery of Apa Apollo. The acquisition details suggest a Hermopolite context. The place name mentioned in l. 7 may be Percie in the Hermopolite nome or Perciese in the Faiyum.

    This document is very fragmentary, but it may be related to other tithe collection texts from the same collection. Fathers of the 'diakonia' of the 'Ma' of Apa Jeremias address two monks belonging to the Monastery of Apa Apollo, to whom they may have assigned a place called Percie or Perciese (l. 7).

    Percie, which is possibly the more likely interpretation here, may be identified with el-Burgaya, about 6.5 km north of el-Minya in the Hermopolite nome (Timm, S. (ed.), 1984-1992. ‘Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit : eine Sammlung christlicher Stätten in Ägypten in arabischer Zeit, unter Ausschluss von Alexandria, Kairo, des Apa-Mena-Klosters (Dēr Abū Mina), der Skētis (Wādi n-Naṭrūn) und der Sinai-Region’. 6 vols. Wiesbaden : Reichert, 449-50 al-Burgaya). It is possibly mentioned in two Bawit inscriptions: 'The holy Apa Eudaimon, martyr, of Percaie' (Maspero, J., and Drioton, E., 1932-43. ‘Fouilles executes à Baouît’. MIFAO 59, 1-2 [fascicles dated 1932, 1943; title pages dated 1931], no. 389) and 'brother ('pason') Hor of Percai' (Maspero and Drioton, 1932-43, no. 398). Till, W.C. (ed.), ‘Die koptischen Rechtsurkunden der Papyrussammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek’. Vienna : Holzhausen, 206.6 records the place name which may be Percie.


  • Bibliography

    • Clackson 2000 p.12, 71-2, pl.10 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    fair (incomplete - fragmentary)

  • Associated names

  • Associated places

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • P.Mon.Apollo 19
Fragment of a papyrus document with Coptic text on recto (7 lines) and verso (9 lines); perhaps part of a letter.


Fragment of a papyrus document with Coptic text on recto (7 lines) and verso (9 lines); perhaps part of a letter.

Image description



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Object reference number: YCA72147

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