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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


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  • Object type

  • Museum number


  • Description

    Book of the Dead of Nebamun; sheet 32(two fragments); vignette of Chapter 25; yellow border.

  • Culture/period

  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Dimensions

    • Height: 13 centimetres (frame)
    • Length: 46 centimetres (frame)
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

      • Inscription Script

      • Inscription Translation

        Titles/epithets include : Estate Overseer; Treasury Scribe of the King in Pernefer; Dockyard Overseer of the King; Scribe reckoning silver and gold of the Lord of the Two Lands
  • Curator's comments

    Nicholson and Shaw, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology (Cambridge 2000), p. 119To be published by Guenther Lapp (Basel).

  • Bibliography

    • Quirke 1993 121 bibliographic details
  • Condition

    Papyrus Survey: Condition Details: Papyrus: fragmentary, loss Black ink Pigment Backed: brown paper Mount Details: Sandwich: glass Sandwich: board Binding: leather Object Priority: B Mount Priority: A Overall Condition: B Curatorial condition comment: incomplete/fragmentary

  • Associated names

  • Associated titles

    • Title: Book of the Dead
  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date


  • Department

    Ancient Egypt & Sudan

  • BM/Big number


  • Registration number


  • Additional IDs

    • Sheet.32


If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

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Object reference number: YCA66039

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