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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Symbols of the pharaoh

Visit resource
Age 7–11

Be a symbol detective and decode scarabs, cartouches and sculptures of Ramesses II. Using this resource students investigate symbols and their meanings, as well as learning about Ancient Egyptian sculpture and pharaohs.

Download Word version, 615kb
Download PDF version, 325kb

Subjects covered

Art and design

Age ranges

Age 7–11 (KS2)

Related information

Ancient Egypt
Gallery 4

scarab pendant

Image: Winged scarab of electrum, inlaid with carnelian, green feldspar, and lapis lazuli. From Egypt. Reign of Senwosret II, 12th Dynasty, around 1890 BC.