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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Islamic civilisations

Visit resource
Age 12–16

Explore the medieval Islamic world. Find out about the importance of religion, science and technology, architecture, travel and trade, and courtly life.

Download Word version, 1.6mb 
Download PDF version, 441kb 

Subjects covered

Art and design

Age ranges

Age 12–16

Related information

Middle East and Islamic World

The archangel Israfil

Image: Page from a manuscript, The archangel Israfil. Baghdad, Iraq, 15th century AD