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Leaders and rulers in Africa

African peoples have always had their own local leaders, such as elders and chiefs, but long ago some of these gained greater power as rulers of kingdoms and great empires. As far as we know, the first to do this were the Egyptians.

In the late 19th century European countries conquered much of Africa, looking to profit from its rich natural resources. The present countries of Africa, with modern governments, have appeared following the withdrawal of these foreign rulers.

A map of Africa