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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Final Tawaf

The final tawaf (early 20th century)

The final tawaf (early 20th century)

British Museum 1948,1214,0.20

This colourful print shows pilgrims performing the final tawaf. On the left is the structure which encloses the well of Zamzam. Pilgrims are streaming through the Bab Bani Shayba, the red-and-white-striped gate in the centre. The flag of the Ottoman Empire flies from a building behind the Ka‘ba. This print appeared in Cairo Punch. Between 1910 and 1932 the magazine published a series of prints depicting important contemporary events in the Middle East.

Supported by

Arts and Humanities Research Council