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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


The Arab-Sasanian period

After the Arab victory at Nahavand in 642, the new Arab governors continued to mint Sasanian-style coins for another hundred years in Iran. These coins show the portrait of Khusrow II (590-628) on the front and a Zoroastrian fire altar on the back. This silver dirhem was minted by Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan, Arab governor in southern Iran.

There are inscriptions on both sides of the coin: the governor's name on the front and the mint and date on the back are in Middle Persian. The margin, however, shows in Arabic bismillah rabbi, 'in the name of Allah, the Lord'. The Sasanian crescent and star has remained popular to this day.