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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site

 

Headdress and necklace of gold, lapis lazuli and cornelian


Gold headdress and necklace

Reconstruction of the burial shaft, showing the queen's retinue and the ox drivers (1928)

Reconstruction of the burial shaft, showing the queen's retinue and the ox drivers (1928)


Excavated by C.L. Woolley

ME 121481;ME 122351


Woolley's greatest discovery at Ur was the so-called 'Royal Cemetery', which he began to excavate from 1926. Dug outside the walls of the city, the cemetery was built over by the walls of Nebuchadnezzar's larger city about 2,000 years later. Some 1,840 burials were found, dating to between 2600 BC and 2000 BC. They ranged from simple inhumations, with the body rolled in a mat, to elaborate burials in domed tombs reached by descending ramps. Seventeen of these early burial Woolley called 'Royal Graves' because of the rich grave-goods and the bodies of retainers, apparently sacrificed.

This jewellery comes from one of the richest tombs at Ur. It was the burial place of Pu-abi, her name recorded on a fine cylinder seal of lapis lazuli. She lay on a wooden bier, a gold cup near her hand, the upper part of her body entirely hidden by multi-coloured beads. She wore an elaborate headdress. Buried with her were the bodies of 25 attendants, laid out in rows, and oxen which had been harnessed to vehicles. An adjacent tomb with no principal occupant had 65 attendants. Even more bodies were found in the tomb known as the Great Death Pit, which was occupied by six servants, four women harpists and 64 other women, dressed in scarlet and adorned with gold, silver, lapis lazuli and cornelian. The attendants may have voluntarily taken poison and were buried while unconscious or dead.

Other Views: Reconstruction of the burial shaft, showing the queen's retinue and the ox drivers (A. Forestier, 1928)