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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Samuel Palmer, Sketchbook: Donkey-like Animal and Tree Studies, brown ink, graphite and watercolour

Samuel Palmer, Sketchbook: Don

Donkey-like Animal

Tree Studies

Tree Studies

PD 1964-11-4-1

The pages featured here are from an oblong notebook which originally contained ninety-two leaves. It records a combination of studies, compositions and writings from one of Palmer's most creative periods. The pictures are the first surviving 'visionary' works that Palmer created and contrast strongly with the naturalistic style of his earlier sketchbook of 1819.

Although Palmer may not have met Blake at this time, he was certainly familiar with his work through Linnell. This is reflected in the sketchbook, which seems to echo some of Blake's wood engravings, although the designs are very much Palmer's own. The drawings are produced largely in pen, although watercolour is sometimes added. It is lucky that this sketchbook has survived, because many others from the same period were tragically burnt by Palmer's son A.H. Palmer. He did this because he feared that they showed 'unmanly' qualities which would damage his father's reputation.

Donkey-like Animal, leaf 17 verso, is a splendid frontal view of an animal that seems to be more the product of imagination than observation. Like many of Palmer's visionary works, this invented creature is drawn precisely and close-up. Tree Studies, leaf 62 verso, was presumably made in the winter of 1824/5. The inscription at lower left, together with the sketch of a line of trees along a path, suggests that the picture was based on direct observation.