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Enlightenment: Trade and Discovery
Bronze medal of Giovanni-Battista Belzoni
Giovanni-Battista Belzoni was an explorer and archaeologist, born in Padua (Padova) in northern Italy. In 1803 he was working in England as a circus strong man, and exhibiting models of hydraulic engines. In 1815 he went to Cairo in Egypt to try and sell his hydraulic engines to Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, and within two years had begun a new career, excavating Egyptian tombs and temples. He worked as an agent for the British Consul, Henry Salt, and helped him form his first collection, which the British Museum purchased in 1823.
From the west bank at
Thebes he obtained the colossal sculpture of the head of Ramesses
Belzoni explored Elephantine and the Temple of Edfu. In 1818 he became the first person in modern times to enter the pyramid of Chefren at Giza (pictured on the reverse of this medal).
Belzoni returned to England in 1819 and published a two-volume account, Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations, in Egypt and Nubia . . . (1820). His methods were crude by modern standards. He disregarded many items that did not interest him and must have damaged much in pursuit of his goal. However, although he has been accused of 'pillage' he was no worse than his contemporaries.