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Enlightenment: The Birth of Archaeology
Dr Woodward's shield
According to tradition, this embossed iron
The shield is illustrated with scenes from ancient Roman history. In 390 BC an army of Gauls led by Brennus invaded Rome. After a long siege of the Capitoline Hill, the Gauls agreed to leave Rome in return for a payment of one thousand pounds in weight of gold. But the Romans objected to the weights used by the Gauls, which were heavier than standard, causing Brennus to throw down his sword in anger. In response, the Roman leader Camillus raised an army which drove the Gaulish invaders from the city.
The shield depicts Rome being burned by the Gauls and gold being weighed for the ransom. These scenes follow descriptions by the ancient Roman writers Livy and Plutarch so closely that Woodward believed that the shield was made at the same time as the events depicted, rather than being a later illustration of the texts. Woodward published a treatise outlining his theories in 1713. This immediately prompted a satire by Alexander Pope on the follies of antiquarianism, The Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus. The satire was produced by the Scriblerus Club, a literary group formed in 1713 to satirize 'all the false tastes in learning'. Its members included Pope and Jonathan Swift.
The true origins of Dr Woodward's shield remained the subject of much debate throughout the eighteenth century. In fact it is now believed to have been made in France in the mid-sixteenth century.